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The ongoing characterization of novel species creates the need for a molecular marker which can be used for species- and, simultaneously, for mega-systematics. Recently, the use of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence was suggested, as it shows a high divergence in sequence with an assumed conservation in structure. This hypothesis was mainly(More)
Given two organisms, how can one distinguish whether they belong to the same species or not? This might be straightforward for two divergent organisms, but can be extremely difficult and laborious for closely related ones. A molecular marker giving a clear distinction would therefore be of immense benefit. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) has been(More)
The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit is one of the most commonly applied phylogenetic markers. It is a fast evolving locus, which makes it appropriate for studies at low taxonomic levels, whereas its secondary structure is well conserved, and tree reconstructions are possible at higher taxonomic levels. However,(More)
BACKGROUND In sequence analysis the multiple alignment builds the fundament of all proceeding analyses. Errors in an alignment could strongly influence all succeeding analyses and therefore could lead to wrong predictions. Hand-crafted and hand-improved alignments are necessary and meanwhile good common practice. For RNA sequences often the primary sequence(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (Ca(v)1.1; dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR) was determined using electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging. The structure shows a single channel complex with an approximate total molecular mass of 550 kDa, corresponding to the five known subunits of the(More)
Structural genomics meets phylogenetics and vice versa: Knowing rRNA secondary structures is a prerequisite for constructing rRNA alignments for inferring phylogenies, and inferring phylogenies is a precondition to understand the evolution of such rRNA secondary structures. Here, both scientific worlds go together. The rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2(More)
MOTIVATION The Profile Neighbor Joining (PNJ) algorithm as implemented in the software ProfDist is computationally efficient in reconstructing very large trees. Besides the huge amount of sequence data the structure is important in RNA alignment analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction. RESULTS For this ProfDistS provides a phylogenetic workflow that uses(More)
Papillomaviruses, members of a group of dsDNA viruses associated with epithelial growths and tumors, have compact capsids assembled from 72 pentamers of the protein L1. We have determined the structure of bovine papillomavirus by electron cryomicrosopy (cryoEM), at approximately 3.6 A resolution. The density map, obtained from single-particle analysis of(More)
The first step of any molecular phylogenetic analysis is the selection of the species and sequences to be included, the taxon sampling. Already here different pitfalls exist. Sequences can contain errors, annotations in databases can be inaccurate and even the taxonomic classification of a species can be wrong. Usually, these artefacts become evident only(More)
The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is a well-established marker for phylogenetic analyses in eukaryotes. A reliable resource for reference sequences and their secondary structures is the ITS2 database (http://its2.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de/). However, the database was last updated in 2011. Here, we present a major update of the underlying(More)