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BACKGROUND In several pilot studies, transcranial brain sonography findings of substantia nigra and lenticular nucleus discriminated between idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders. OBJECTIVE To study the use of transcranial brain sonography in excluding the diagnosis of idiopathic PD in patients with sporadic parkinsonism.(More)
Transcranial sonography (TCS) revealed substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). To further evaluate specificity of this finding, we examined 30 IPD patients and 30 age-matched subjects with non-extrapyramidal cerebral disorders (NED). All IPD patients showed a SN hyperechogenicity, in 17 it was bilateral and in 13(More)
Motor hyperactivity is one of the most outstanding symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which might be caused by a disturbed inhibitory motor control. Using focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) we tested the cortico-callosal inhibition (duration and latency of the ipsilateral Silent Period, iSP) in 23 children with ADHD (mean(More)
To investigate whether transcranial brain sonography (TCS) discriminates different courses of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), 101 patients with clinically definite PD were studied. In four patients, TCS was not possible due to insufficient acoustic temporal bone windows. Substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity was found in 96% of assessable patients.(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical dystonia is managed mainly by repeated botulinum toxin injections. We aimed to establish whether pallidal neurostimulation could improve symptoms in patients not adequately responding to chemodenervation or oral drug treatment. METHODS In this randomised, sham-controlled trial, we recruited patients with cervical dystonia from centres(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the use of transcranial sonography (TCS) in discriminating between patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD). METHODS Fourteen patients with DLB, 31 with PDD and 73 with PD without dementia (PDnD) were studied with TCS. RESULTS All assessable patients with DLB, 97% with PDD, and 94% with(More)
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) and epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) are common epileptic conditions for which straightforward recommendations based on controlled randomized trials for treatment in therapy refractory courses are lacking. In a large retrospective study on drug efficacy in status epilepticus (SE) we identified the patients treated(More)
OBJECTIVE Assessment of upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement is essential for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In a number of ALS cases, mirror movements (MM) suggest an involvement of transcallosal fibre tracts in conjunction with UMN involvement. The present study analysed whether deficient transcallosal inhibition (TI) tested by TMS(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor syndrome with clinical evidence of upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction. Mirror movements (MM) in ALS have been reported and attributed to a disturbed transcallosal inhibition (TI). Hence, occurrence of MM in ALS might be explained by involvement of transcallosal projecting fibre tracts into the(More)