BACKGROUND Upon cellular entry retroviruses must avoid innate restriction factors produced by the host cell. For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human restriction factors, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein-B-mRNA-editing-enzyme), p21 and tetherin are well characterised. RESULTS To identify intrinsic resistance factors to HIV-1 replication we screened 19,121… (More)
Fitness interactions between mutations, referred to as epistasis, can strongly impact evolution. For RNA viruses and retroviruses with their high mutation rates, epistasis may be particularly important to overcome fitness losses due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations and thus could influence the frequency of mutants in a viral population. As human… (More)
and expensive investigations and empirical modifications of therapy. Prospective pharmacodynamic investigations are needed to confirm the utility of measuring antibiotic plasma concentrations in persistent febrile neutropenia, which would justify its implementation in clinical management.
In order to characterize the antiviral activity of human TRIM5alpha in more detail human derived indicator cell lines over expressing wild type human TRIM5alpha were generated and challenged with HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses pseudotyped with HIV envelope proteins in comparison to VSV-G pseudotyped particles. HIV envelope protein pseudotyped particles… (More)
The cellular actin cytoskeleton presents a barrier that must be overcome by many viruses, and it has become increasingly apparent many viral species have developed a diverse repertoire of mechanisms to hijack cellular actin-regulating signalling pathways as part of their cell entry processes. The Rho family GTPase Cdc42 is appreciated as a key moderator of… (More)