Matthias P. Mayer

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Hsp70 proteins are central components of the cellular network of molecular chaperones and folding catalysts. They assist a large variety of protein folding processes in the cell by transient association of their substrate binding domain with short hydrophobic peptide segments within their substrate proteins. The substrate binding and release cycle is driven(More)
Hsp70 chaperones assist a large variety of protein folding processes within the entire lifespan of proteins. Central to these activities is the regulation of Hsp70 by DnaJ cochaperones. DnaJ stimulates Hsp70 to hydrolyze ATP, a key step that closes its substrate-binding cavity and thus allows stable binding of substrate. We show that DnaJ stimulates ATP(More)
The Hsp110 proteins, exclusively found in the eukaryotic cytosol, have significant sequence homology to the Hsp70 molecular chaperone superfamily. Despite this homology and the cellular abundance of these proteins, the precise functional role has remained undefined. Here, we present the intriguing finding that the yeast homologue, Sse1p, acts as an(More)
The sigma(E) (RpoE) transcription factor of Escherichia coli regulates the expression of genes whose products are devoted to extracytoplasmic activities. The sigma(E) regulon is induced upon misfolding of proteins in the periplasm or the outer membrane. Similar to other alternative sigma factors, the activity of sigma(E) is tightly regulated in E. coli. We(More)
Central to the chaperone function of Hsp70s is the transition between open and closed conformations of their polypeptide substrate binding domain (SBD), which is regulated through an allosteric mechanism via ATP binding and hydrolysis in their nucleotide binding domain (NBD). Although the structure of the closed conformation of Hsp70s is well studied, the(More)
Molecular chaperones assist folding processes and conformational changes in many proteins. In order to do so, they progress through complex conformational cycles themselves. In this review, I discuss the diverse conformational dynamics of the ATP-dependent chaperones of the Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp100 families.
The Hsp70 chaperone activity in protein folding is regulated by ATP-controlled cycles of substrate binding and release. Nucleotide exchange plays a key role in these cycles by triggering substrate release. Structural searches of Hsp70 homologs revealed three structural elements within the ATPase domain: two salt bridges and an exposed loop. Mutational(More)
The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (the Hsp70 family) assist refolding of their substrates through ATP-controlled binding. We have analyzed mutants of DnaK, an Hsp70 homolog, altered in key residues of its substrate binding domain. Substrate binding occurs by a dynamic mechanism involving: a hydrophobic pocket for a single residue that is crucial for affinity,(More)
Hsp70 chaperones interact with a wide spectrum of substrates ranging from unfolded to natively folded and aggregated proteins. Structural evidence suggests that bound substrates are entirely enclosed in a β-sheet cavity covered by a helical lid, which requires structural rearrangements including lid opening to allow substrate access. We analyzed the(More)