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The number of alveoli is a key structural determinant of lung architecture. A design-based stereologic approach was used for the direct and unbiased estimation of alveolar number in the human lung. The principle is based on two-dimensional topology in three-dimensional space and is free of assumptions on the shape, size, or spatial orientation of alveoli.(More)
Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is synthesized by type II pneumocytes as a 21-kD propeptide (proSP-C) which is proteolytically processed to a 4.2-kD dipalmitoylated protein. To characterize the processing of proSP-C and the role of the cysteine protease cathepsin H, we studied the localization of proSP-C and cathepsin H in human as well as proSP-C in rat lungs,(More)
Combustion-derived and synthetic nano-sized particles (NSP) have gained considerable interest among pulmonary researchers and clinicians for two main reasons. 1) Inhalation exposure to combustion-derived NSP was associated with increased pulmonary and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as suggested by epidemiological studies. Experimental evidence has(More)
Quantitative data on lung structure are essential to set up structure-function models for assessing the functional performance of the lung or to make statistically valid comparisons in experimental morphology, physiology, or pathology. The methods of choice for microscopy-based lung morphometry are those of stereology, the science of quantitative(More)
Detecting, localising and counting ultrasmall particles and nanoparticles in sub- and supra-cellular compartments are of considerable current interest in basic and applied research in biomedicine, bioscience and environmental science. For particles with sufficient contrast (e.g. colloidal gold, ferritin, heavy metal-based nanoparticles), visualization(More)
The mean linear intercept (chord) length (L(m)) is a useful parameter of peripheral lung structure as it describes the mean free distance in the air spaces. It is often misinterpreted as a measure of "alveolar size," and its estimation is fraught with a number of pitfalls. We present two methods for the accurate estimation of L(m): 1) the indirect method,(More)
Surfactant proteins (SP) have an important impact on the function of the pulmonary surfactant. In contrast to humans, rat lungs are immature at birth. Alveolarization starts on postnatal day 4. Little is known about the distribution of SP during postnatal alveolarization. By immunoelectron microscopy, we studied the distribution of SP-A, SP-D, SP-B, and(More)
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is synthesized by type II pneumocytes as a proprotein (proSP-B) that is proteolytically processed to an 8-kD protein. In human type II pneumocytes, we identified not only proSP-B, processing intermediates of proSP-B, and mature SP-B, but also fragments of the N-terminal propeptide. By means of immunoelectron microscopy, proSP-B(More)
To investigate the localization of the earliest damage in ischemic and ischemic-reperfused myocardium, anesthetized rats were subjected to coronary occlusion for 15, 30, 45, or 90 min. One-half of the animals in each group had no reperfusion, whereas the other half was reperfused for 14 min. With the use of histological methods, preferentially in the(More)