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Detecting, localising and counting ultrasmall particles and nanoparticles in sub- and supra-cellular compartments are of considerable current interest in basic and applied research in biomedicine, bioscience and environmental science. For particles with sufficient contrast (e.g. colloidal gold, ferritin, heavy metal-based nanoparticles), visualization(More)
The number of alveoli is a key structural determinant of lung architecture. A design-based stereologic approach was used for the direct and unbiased estimation of alveolar number in the human lung. The principle is based on two-dimensional topology in three-dimensional space and is free of assumptions on the shape, size, or spatial orientation of alveoli.(More)
Combustion-derived and synthetic nano-sized particles (NSP) have gained considerable interest among pulmonary researchers and clinicians for two main reasons. 1) Inhalation exposure to combustion-derived NSP was associated with increased pulmonary and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as suggested by epidemiological studies. Experimental evidence has(More)
Quantitative data on lung structure are essential to set up structure-function models for assessing the functional performance of the lung or to make statistically valid comparisons in experimental morphology, physiology, or pathology. The methods of choice for microscopy-based lung morphometry are those of stereology, the science of quantitative(More)
Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is synthesized by type II pneumocytes as a 21-kD propeptide (proSP-C) which is proteolytically processed to a 4.2-kD dipalmitoylated protein. To characterize the processing of proSP-C and the role of the cysteine protease cathepsin H, we studied the localization of proSP-C and cathepsin H in human as well as proSP-C in rat lungs,(More)
Nanotechnology in its widest sense seeks to exploit the special biophysical and chemical properties of materials at the nanoscale. While the potential technological, diagnostic or therapeutic applications are promising there is a growing body of evidence that the special technological features of nanoparticulate material are associated with biological(More)
The surfactant system of the lung has essential biophysical and immunomodulatory functions. Only at the electron microscopic level does surfactant reveal its morphological complexity--and beauty. Therefore, morphological tools are indispensible to characterize the surfactant system in health and disease. Stereology provides the gold standard for obtaining(More)
AIMS We explored the use of highly purified murine and human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) to generate functional bioartificial cardiac tissue (BCT) and investigated the role of fibroblasts, ascorbic acid (AA), and mechanical stimuli on tissue formation, maturation, and functionality. METHODS AND RESULTS Murine and human(More)
OBJECTIVE Arterial injury stimulates remodeling responses that, when excessive, lead to stenosis. These responses are influenced by integrin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an integrin ligand localized to extracellular matrix fibers in the vascular wall. The role of MFAP4 in vascular biology(More)