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BACKGROUND Detecting the direction of visual motion is an essential task of the early visual system. The Reichardt detector has been proven to be a faithful description of the underlying computation in insects. A series of recent studies addressed the neural implementation of the Reichardt detector in Drosophila revealing the overall layout in parallel ON(More)
Visual systems extract directional motion information from spatiotemporal luminance changes on the retina. An algorithmic model, the Reichardt detector, accounts for this by multiplying adjacent inputs after asymmetric temporal filtering. The outputs of two mirror-symmetrical units tuned to opposite directions are thought to be subtracted on the dendrites(More)
Long-acting third-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) improve endothelial dysfunction and prevent cardiovascular events in humans, but their cellular and molecular mechanisms of tissue protection are not elucidated in detail. We assessed organ (renal) protection by the highly lipophilic CCB lercanidipine in a double-transgenic rat(More)
The root functions as the physical anchor of the plant and is the organ responsible for uptake of water and mineral nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfate and trace elements that plants acquire from the soil. If we want to develop sustainable approaches to producing high crop yield, we need to better understand how the root develops, takes up a(More)
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria and peritubular extracellular matrix production. We have previously shown that the PKC isoforms α and β mediate different cellular effects. PKC-β contributes to hyperglycemia-induced renal matrix production, whereby PKC-α is involved in the(More)
In 1971 Keutel et al. described a new syndrome in two siblings presenting with peripheral pulmonary stenoses, brachytelephalangism, neural hearing loss and abnormal cartilage calcification. Recent investigations provided evidence that mutations in the gene encoding the human matrix GLA protein cause Keutel syndrome. With these new insights in the disease(More)
In this article, we developed a "plant on a chip" microfluidic platform that can control the local chemical environment around live roots of Arabidopsis thaliana with high spatial resolution using multi-laminar flow. We characterized the flow profile around the Arabidopsis root, and verified that the shear forces within the device ( approximately 10 dyne(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high risk of complications, essentially macrovascular events. Surprisingly, the effect of improved glucose control on coronary and cerebrovascular complications and the target level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) in this population remains questionable. We here report the results of 4 recently published(More)
Assembly cloning is increasingly replacing conventional restriction enzyme and DNA-ligase-dependent cloning methods for reasons of efficiency and performance. Here, we describe AQUA (advanced quick assembly), a simple and versatile seamless assembly cloning approach. We demonstrate the applicability and versatility of AQUA Cloning in selected(More)