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  • Matthew S Maisak, Juergen Haag, Georg Ammer, Etienne Serbe, Matthias Meier, Aljoscha Leonhardt +8 others
  • 2013
The extraction of directional motion information from changing retinal images is one of the earliest and most important processing steps in any visual system. In the fly optic lobe, two parallel processing streams have been anatomically described, leading from two first-order interneurons, L1 and L2, via T4 and T5 cells onto large, wide-field(More)
BACKGROUND Detecting the direction of visual motion is an essential task of the early visual system. The Reichardt detector has been proven to be a faithful description of the underlying computation in insects. A series of recent studies addressed the neural implementation of the Reichardt detector in Drosophila revealing the overall layout in parallel ON(More)
Visual systems extract directional motion information from spatiotemporal luminance changes on the retina. An algorithmic model, the Reichardt detector, accounts for this by multiplying adjacent inputs after asymmetric temporal filtering. The outputs of two mirror-symmetrical units tuned to opposite directions are thought to be subtracted on the dendrites(More)
  • Jan Menne, Nelli Shushakova, Janina Bartels, Yulia Kiyan, Robert Laudeley, Hermann Haller +2 others
  • 2013
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria and peritubular extracellular matrix production. We have previously shown that the PKC isoforms α and β mediate different cellular effects. PKC-β contributes to hyperglycemia-induced renal matrix production, whereby PKC-α is involved in the(More)
The root functions as the physical anchor of the plant and is the organ responsible for uptake of water and mineral nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfate and trace elements that plants acquire from the soil. If we want to develop sustainable approaches to producing high crop yield, we need to better understand how the root develops, takes up a(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high risk of complications, essentially macrovascular events. Surprisingly, the effect of improved glucose control on coronary and cerebrovascular complications and the target level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) in this population remains questionable. We here report the results of 4 recently published(More)
In this article, we developed a "plant on a chip" microfluidic platform that can control the local chemical environment around live roots of Arabidopsis thaliana with high spatial resolution using multi-laminar flow. We characterized the flow profile around the Arabidopsis root, and verified that the shear forces within the device ( approximately 10 dyne(More)
It is supposed that some stress-induced heat shock proteins (Hsps) are regulated through e.g. stimulation of the p38MAPK/MK(MAPKAP)-2 signalling pathway. It has been postulated from in vitro experiments that phosphorylation of Hsp25(rodents)/Hsp27(human), the major phosphorylation substrate of MK2, is responsible for mesangial contractility and glomerular(More)
Recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. Species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. So far, the(More)