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Beyond its well-documented role in vesicle endocytosis, clathrin has also been implicated in the internalization of large particles such as viruses, pathogenic bacteria, and even latex beads. We have discovered an additional clathrin-dependent endocytic process that results in the internalization of large, double-membrane vesicles at lateral membranes of(More)
Certain membrane channels including acetylcholine receptors, gap junction (GJ) channels, and aquaporins arrange into large clusters in the plasma membrane (PM). However, how these channels are recruited to the clusters is unknown. To address this question, we have investigated delivery of GJ channel subunits (connexons) assembled from green fluorescent(More)
Double-membrane-spanning gap junction (GJ) channels cluster into two-dimensional arrays, termed plaques, to provide direct cell-to-cell communication. GJ plaques often contain circular, channel-free domains ( approximately 0.05-0.5 mum in diameter) identified >30 y ago and termed nonjunctional membrane (NM) domains. We show, by expressing the GJ protein(More)
Gap junctions are specialized cell-cell junctions that mediate intercellular communication. They are composed of connexin proteins, which form transmembrane channels for small molecules [1, 2]. The C-terminal tail of connexin-43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed connexin member, has been implicated in the regulation of Cx43 channel gating by growth factors(More)
Direct intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJs) is a hallmark of normal cell and tissue physiology. In addition, GJs significantly contribute to physical cell-cell adhesion. Clearly, these cellular functions require precise modulation. Typically, GJs represent arrays of hundreds to thousands of densely packed channels, each one assembled(More)
Gap junctions (GJs) are composed of tens to many thousands of double-membrane spanning GJ channels that cluster together to form densely packed channel arrays (termed GJ plaques) in apposing plasma membranes of neighboring cells. In addition to providing direct intercellular communication (GJIC, their hallmark function), GJs, based on their characteristic(More)
Gap junctions, composed of connexin proteins in chordates, are the most ubiquitous form of intercellular communication. Complete connexin gene families have been identified from human (20) and mouse (19), revealing significant diversity in gap junction channels. We searched current databases and identified 37 putative zebrafish connexin genes, almost twice(More)
Gap junctions (GJs) are the only known cellular structures that allow a direct cell-to-cell transfer of signaling molecules by forming densely packed arrays or "plaques" of hydrophilic channels that bridge the apposing membranes of neighboring cells. The crucial role of GJ-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) for all aspects of multicellular life,(More)
Gap junction membrane channels assemble as dodecameric complexes, in which a hexameric hemichannel (connexon) in one plasma membrane docks end to end with a connexon in the membrane of a closely apposed cell. Steps in the synthesis, assembly and turnover of gap junction channels appear to follow the general secretory pathway for membrane proteins. In(More)
Gap junction channels may be comprised of either connexin or pannexin proteins (innexins and pannexins). Membrane topologies of both families are similar, but sequence similarity is lacking. Recently, connexin-like sequences have been identified in mammalian and zebrafish genomes that have only four conserved cysteines in the extracellular domains (Cx23), a(More)