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There is compelling evidence that sleep contributes to the long-term consolidation of new memories. This function of sleep has been linked to slow (<1 Hz) potential oscillations, which predominantly arise from the prefrontal neocortex and characterize slow wave sleep. However, oscillations in brain potentials are commonly considered to be mere epiphenomena(More)
Based on findings primarily in cats, the grouping of spindle activity and fast brain oscillations by slow oscillations during slow-wave sleep (SWS) has been proposed to represent an essential feature in the processing of memories during sleep. We examined whether a comparable grouping of spindle and fast activity coinciding with slow oscillations can be(More)
Declarative memory consolidation is enhanced by sleep. In the investigation of underlying mechanisms, mainly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow-wave sleep have been considered. More recently, sleep stage 2 with sleep spindles as a most prominent feature has received increasing attention. Specifically, in rats hippocampal ripples were found to occur in(More)
Ripples are high-frequency oscillation bursts in the mammalian hippocampus mainly present during Non-REM sleep. In rodents they occur in association with sharp waves and are grouped by the cortical slow oscillation such that, in parallel with sleep spindles, ripple activity is suppressed during the hyperpolarized down-state and enhanced during the(More)
In humans, weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability in the motor, visual, and prefrontal cortex. Periods rich in slow-wave sleep (SWS) not only facilitate the consolidation of declarative memories, but in humans, SWS is also accompanied by a pronounced endogenous transcortical DC potential shift of negative polarity over(More)
Slow oscillations originating in the prefrontal neocortex during slow-wave sleep (SWS) group neuronal network activity and thereby presumably support the consolidation of memories. Here, we investigated whether the grouping influence of slow oscillations extends to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple (SPW) activity thought to underlie memory replay processes(More)
Brain rhythms regulate information processing in different states to enable learning and memory formation. The <1 Hz sleep slow oscillation hallmarks slow-wave sleep and is critical to memory consolidation. Here we show in sleeping humans that auditory stimulation in phase with the ongoing rhythmic occurrence of slow oscillation up states profoundly(More)
Slow oscillations are electrical potential oscillations with a spectral peak frequency of ∼0.8 Hz, and hallmark the electroencephalogram during slow-wave sleep. Recent studies have indicated a causal contribution of slow oscillations to the consolidation of memories during slow-wave sleep, raising the question to what extent such oscillations can be induced(More)
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical <1Hz electroencephalogram (EEG) slow oscillation and involves the reactivation of(More)
As well as consolidating memory, sleep has been proposed to serve a second important function for memory, i.e. to free capacities for the learning of new information during succeeding wakefulness. The slow wave activity (SWA) that is a hallmark of slow wave sleep could be involved in both functions. Here, we aimed to demonstrate a causative role for SWA in(More)