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Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems create a novel communication channel from the brain to an output device by bypassing conventional motor output pathways of nerves and muscles. Therefore they could provide a new communication and control option for paralyzed patients. Modern BCI technology is essentially based on techniques for the classification of(More)
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems establish a direct communication channel from the brain to an output device. These systems use brain signals recorded from the scalp, the surface of the cortex, or from inside the brain to enable users to control a variety of applications. BCI systems that bypass conventional motor output pathways of nerves and muscles(More)
Non-stationarities are ubiquitous in EEG signals. They are especially apparent in the use of EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs): (a) in the differences between the initial calibration measurement and the online operation of a BCI, or (b) caused by changes in the subject's brain processes during an experiment (e.g. due to fatigue, change of task(More)
The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI) project develops a noninvasive BCI system whose key features are 1) the use of well-established motor competences as control paradigms, 2) high-dimensional features from 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG), and 3) advanced machine learning techniques. As reported earlier, our experiments demonstrate that very(More)
A common assumption in supervised learning is that the input points in the training set follow the same probability distribution as the input points that will be given in the future test phase. However, this assumption is not satisfied, for example, when the outside of the training region is extrapolated. The situation where the training input points and(More)
Machine learning methods are an excellent choice for compensating the high variability in EEG when analyzing single-trial data in real-time. This paper briefly reviews preprocessing and classification techniques for efficient EEG-based brain-computer interfacing (BCI) and mental state monitoring applications. More specifically, this paper gives an outline(More)
We outline the Berlin Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI), a system which enables us to translate brain signals from movements or movement intentions into control commands. The main contribution of the BBCI, which is a non-invasive EEG-based BCI system, is the use of advanced machine learning techniques that allow to adapt to the specific brain signatures of(More)
Compared to invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), non-invasive BCI systems based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals have not been applied successfully for precisely timed control tasks. In the present study, however, we demonstrate and report on the interaction of subjects with a real device: a pinball machine. Results of this study clearly show that(More)
Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are highly subject-specific and vary considerably even between recording sessions of the same user within the same experimental paradigm. This challenges a stable operation of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems. The classical approach is to train users by neurofeedback to produce fixed stereotypical patterns of brain(More)