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Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon absorption, the major portion of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide. However, consistent in vitro data on DON glucuronidation are lacking. In the present study, the metabolism of DON was investigated using liver microsomes(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the relationship between chief complaints and their underlying diseases and outcome in medical emergency departments (EDs). METHODS All 34 333 patients who attended two of the EDs of the Charité Berlin over a 1-year period were included in the analysis. Data were retrieved from the hospital information system. For study purposes,(More)
Tenuazonic acid (TA) is a major Alternaria mycotoxin. In the present work a novel approach for the detection of TA in cereals by liquid chromatography-ion-trap multistage mass spectrometry after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine is described. The product of the derivatization reaction and its major MS(2) fragments were characterised by Fourier(More)
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic(More)
Trichothecene mycotoxins, with T-2 and HT-2 toxins being the main representatives of the type A subgroup, are naturally and worldwide occurring contaminants frequently found in grain-based food and feed. Due to the high consumption of these products and the potential health risk associated herewith, concerns about the safety and quality of food and feed(More)
In Halobacterium salinarum mutants containing either of the light-driven ion pumps bacteriorhodopsin (H(+)) or halorhodopsin (Cl(-)) as their only retinal protein, a decrease of irradiance in the absence of respiration causes a phototactic response. The conversion of the causal event, a decrease of proton motive force across the cell membrane, into a(More)
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and(More)
The degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids (EAs) in rye flour were investigated after baking cookies and subsequently subjecting them to an in vitro digestion model. Different steps of digestion were analyzed using salivary, gastric, and duodenal juices. The degradation and bidirectional conversion of the toxicologically relevant (R)-epimers and(More)
The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation,(More)
Mycotoxins are natural contaminants produced by a range of fungal species. Their common occurrence in food and feed poses a threat to the health of humans and animals. This threat is caused either by the direct contamination of agricultural commodities or by a "carry-over" of mycotoxins and their metabolites into animal tissues, milk, and eggs after feeding(More)