Matthias Klein

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We have previously shown that two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors (TNFR) exhibit antagonistic functions during neurodegenerative processes in vivo with TNFR1 aggravating and TNFR2 reducing neuronal cell loss, respectively. To elucidate the neuroprotective signaling pathways of TNFR2, we investigated glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cortical(More)
Interferon-regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for the development of T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cells. Herein, we report that IRF4 is also crucial for the development and function of an interleukin-9 (IL-9)-producing CD4(+) T cell subset designated Th9. IRF4-deficient CD4(+) T cells failed to develop into IL-9-producing Th9 cells, and IRF4-specific(More)
The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. Whether it influences B cell trafficking during acute infection, is largely unclear. In previous studies, we showed that (I) CXCL13 levels are markedly increased in the B(More)
During early embryogenesis, microglia arise from yolk sac progenitors that populate the developing central nervous system (CNS), but how the tissue-resident macrophages are maintained throughout the organism's lifespan still remains unclear. Here, we describe a system that allows specific, conditional ablation of microglia in adult mice. We found that the(More)
Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are a thymus-derived subset of T cells, which are crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by controlling potentially autoreactive T cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this strictly cell contact-dependent process are still elusive. Here we show that naturally occurring T reg(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis causes brain damage through inflammation-related pathways whose identity and mechanisms of action are yet unclear. We previously identified caspase-1, which activates precursor IL-1 type cytokines, as a central mediator of inflammation in pneumococcal meningitis. In this study, we demonstrate that lack of the inflammasome(More)
Despite antibiotic therapy and supportive intensive care, the morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal meningitis remain unacceptably high. During the last years, reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), and peroxynitrite, were found to be produced in large amounts during pneumococcal meningitis. Although most likely intended to fight the invasive(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have suggested that, in addition to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, other pattern recognition receptors mediate activation of the immune response after infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP). METHODS Using a mouse meningitis model, we investigated the influence of TLR4 single deficiency(More)
Cell migration is crucial for immune defence, wound healing or formation of tumour metastases. It has been shown that the activity of the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE1) plays an important role in cell migration. However, so far it is unknown whether Na(+)- HCO(3)(-) cotransport (NBC), which has similar functions in the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i)) as(More)