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Interferon-regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for the development of T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cells. Herein, we report that IRF4 is also crucial for the development and function of an interleukin-9 (IL-9)-producing CD4(+) T cell subset designated Th9. IRF4-deficient CD4(+) T cells failed to develop into IL-9-producing Th9 cells, and IRF4-specific(More)
During early embryogenesis, microglia arise from yolk sac progenitors that populate the developing central nervous system (CNS), but how the tissue-resident macrophages are maintained throughout the organism's lifespan still remains unclear. Here, we describe a system that allows specific, conditional ablation of microglia in adult mice. We found that the(More)
Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are a thymus-derived subset of T cells, which are crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by controlling potentially autoreactive T cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this strictly cell contact-dependent process are still elusive. Here we show that naturally occurring T reg(More)
Ticks developed a multitude of different immune evasion strategies to obtain a blood meal. Sialostatin L is an immunosuppressive cysteine protease inhibitor present in the saliva of the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. In this study, we demonstrate that sialostatin L strongly inhibits the production of IL-9 by Th9 cells. Because we could show recently that(More)
We have previously shown that two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors (TNFR) exhibit antagonistic functions during neurodegenerative processes in vivo with TNFR1 aggravating and TNFR2 reducing neuronal cell loss, respectively. To elucidate the neuroprotective signaling pathways of TNFR2, we investigated glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cortical(More)
CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells play a central role regarding the maintenance of peripheral tolerance via suppression of autoaggressive CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and Th1 cells. In this study we demonstrate that CD25+ Treg cells can also suppress the differentiation of murine conventional CD4+ T cells toward Th2 cells in a contact-dependent manner.(More)
Milk production in dairy cows has dramatically increased over the past few decades. The selection for higher milk yield affects the partitioning of available nutrients, with more energy being allocated to milk synthesis and less to physiological processes essential to fertility and fitness. In this study, the abundance of numerous milk metabolites in early(More)
In this study, we investigated cytokine expression during experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Mice were intracisternally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and treated with ceftriaxone starting at 24 h after infection. At different time points before and after antibiotic therapy, the cytokine expression pattern was determined in mouse brains using(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Currently, dexamethasone is the only adjuvant of proven benefit in bacterial meningitis. Dexamethasone halves the risk of poor outcome, but only in selected patient groups. New therapies based upon an understanding of the pathophysiology are needed. This article summarizes our knowledge on the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis with(More)