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The reelin signaling pathway plays a crucial role during the development of laminated structures in the mammalian brain. Reelin, which is synthesized and secreted by Cajal-Retzius cells in the marginal zone of the neocortex and hippocampus, is proposed to act as a stop signal for migrating neurons. Here we show that a decreased expression of reelin mRNA by(More)
Mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is often accompanied by granule cell dispersion (GCD), a widening of the granule cell layer. The molecular determinants of GCD are poorly understood. Here, we used an animal model to study whether GCD results from an increased dentate neurogenesis associated with an abnormal migration of the newly generated granule cells.(More)
BACKGROUND Although vasodilatory shock (VS) is one of the main complications of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), its pathophysiologic basis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify predisposing factors for the development of VS after CPB independent of ventricular function. METHODS Thirty-six patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting(More)
After optic nerve injury retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) normally fail to regenerate axons in the optic nerve and undergo apoptosis. However, lens injury (LI) or intravitreal application of zymosan switch RGCs into an active regenerative state, enabling these neurons to survive axotomy and to regenerate axons into the injured optic nerve. Several factors have(More)
BACKGROUND With the progressive aging of western populations, cardiac surgeons are increasingly faced with elderly patients. METHODS We reviewed the records of 191 consecutive patients aged 80 years or older (mean age, 83 +/- 2.4 years) who underwent a cardiac surgical procedure at our institution from 1991 through 1996. RESULTS Ninety-eight patients(More)
There is increasing, although largely indirect, evidence that neurotrophic factors not only function as target-derived survival factors for projection neurons, but also act locally to regulate developmental processes. We studied the expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and the CNTF-specific ligand-binding alpha-subunit of the CNTF receptor(More)
The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of poststernotomy mediastinitis (PSM) caused by methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA, respectively). Hospital records of 41 patients with S. aureus PSM who were all treated by closed drainage from 1 April 1996 through 1 February 2000 were reviewed. PSM(More)
To investigate the involvement of ciliary neurotropic factor (CNTF) in the postlesional response of motoneurons, we studied the activation of STAT3 signaling, the main signal transduction pathway of CNTF-like cytokines, in the facial nucleus of wildtype and CNTF-deficient mice following peripheral nerve transection. As shown by immunocytochemistry and(More)
In the neurogenic areas of the adult rodent brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate and produce new neurons throughout the lifetime. This requires a permanent pool of NSCs, the size of which needs to be tightly controlled. The gp130-associated cytokines ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) have been implicated in(More)
Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on photoreceptor development in dissociated cultures of embryonic chick and newborn rat retina were studied using opsin immunoreactivity to characterize photoreceptor differentiation. In the presence of CNTF, the number of photoreceptors was increased by up to 200% in chick cultures, but was reduced by 82-99% in(More)