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OBJECTIVE IGF-1 and the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in vitro. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To investigate the role of IGF-1 receptor in vivo, we have inactivated the Igf-1r gene in adipose tissue (IGF-1R(aP2Cre) mice) using conditional gene targeting strategies. (More)
A hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the development of pancreatic β cell failure, which results in insulinopenia and hyperglycemia. We show that the adipokine adipsin has a beneficial role in maintaining β cell function. Animals genetically lacking adipsin have glucose intolerance due to insulinopenia; isolated islets from these mice have(More)
Brown fat activates uncoupled respiration in response to cold temperature and contributes to systemic metabolic homeostasis. To date, the metabolic action of brown fat has been primarily attributed to its role in fuel oxidation and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis. Whether brown fat engages other tissues through secreted factors remains(More)
The molecular target of the adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin; serpinA12) and its mode of action are unknown. Here, we provide the vaspin crystal structure and identify human kallikrein 7 (hK7) as a first protease target of vaspin inhibited by classical serpin mechanism with high specificity in vitro. We detect vaspin–hK7 complexes in(More)
Linagliptin (TRADJENTA™) is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. DPP-4 inhibition attenuates insulin resistance and improves peripheral glucose utilization in humans. However, the effects of chronic DPP-4 inhibition on insulin sensitivity are not known. The effects of long-term treatment (3-4 weeks) with 3 mg/kg/day or 30 mg/kg/day(More)
BACKGROUND Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are a model of type 2 diabetes induced peripheral neuropathy. Ob/ob mice exhibit obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, and alterations of peripheral nerve fibres and endoneural microvessels. Here we test the hypothesis that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-Ang-1, a soluble and stabile form of Ang-1(More)
This study aimed to evaluate the assessment of attractiveness of standardized changes in incisor proportions. Two original photographs, showing the maxillary anterior teeth in the frame of a smile, were computer-manipulated. From the so-produced symmetrical 'golden standard' images, two sets were constructed. Each set contained one golden standard image and(More)
Dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteolytic enzymes trapped within mineralized dentin matrix, which have the ability to hydrolyze the organic matrix of demineralized dentin. After bonding with resins to dentin there are usually some exposed collagen fibrils at the bottom of the hybrid layer owing to imperfect resin(More)
This study aimed to examine whether there exists a gender-dependent correlation between the inverted face shape and that of the upper central incisor as the literature often suggests. Standardized portraits and anterior tooth photographs of 204 dental students were made. Standardized enlargements of facial outlines and of the upper right incisor outlines(More)
BACKGROUND Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch.(More)