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Kinetochores are megadalton-sized protein complexes that mediate chromosome-microtubule interactions in eukaryotes. How kinetochore assembly is triggered specifically on centromeric chromatin is poorly understood. Here we use biochemical reconstitution experiments alongside genetic and structural analysis to delineate the contributions of(More)
A comprehensive chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity study was conducted on a series of Aroclors (1016, 1242, 1254, and 1260). Each Aroclor was assessed at multiple dietary concentrations, ranging from 25 to 200 ppm, for 24 months in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Liver toxicity was indicated by elevated serum enzyme activity (AST, ALT, and GGT),(More)
The correct organization of single subunits of multi-protein machines in a three dimensional context is critical for their functionality. Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are molecular machines with the capacity to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells and are fundamental for the biology of many pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria. A central(More)
We describe a general approach for refining protein structure models on the basis of cryo-electron microscopy maps with near-atomic resolution. The method integrates Monte Carlo sampling with local density-guided optimization, Rosetta all-atom refinement and real-space B-factor fitting. In tests on experimental maps of three different systems with 4.5-Å(More)
To quantify the relative contribution of blood flow redistribution and active changes in vascular capacity in the regulation of cardiac output, blood flow and volumes in two parallel vascular beds were measured in response to varying carotid sinus pressures. In nine dogs, carotid sinuses were isolated and intrasinus pressure was controlled. Two external(More)
Interaction of carotid sinus and aortic arch reflex control of total peripheral resistance was studied in eight dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and placed on constant flow cardiac bypass. Carotid sinus and aortic arch baroreceptor areas were isolated and separately perfused at controlled pressures. Combinations of carotid sinus and aortic arch(More)
A simple, linear, noninteractive model of the reflex control of blood pressure was developed to demonstrate that simple linear addition of the responses of the baroreceptor reflexes can produce observations that appear to have resulted from a redundant control system. Our analysis indicated that common experimental paradigms such as hemorrhage with(More)
Bacterial type III protein secretion systems inject effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells in order to promote survival and colonization of Gram-negative pathogens and symbionts. Secretion across the bacterial cell envelope and injection into host cells is facilitated by a so-called injectisome. Its small hydrophobic export apparatus components SpaP(More)
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