Matthias Hofmann

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We herein present the CLIMBER-3a Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC), which has evolved from the CLIMBER-2 EMIC. The main difference with respect to CLIMBER-2 is its oceanic component, which has been replaced by a state-ofthe-art ocean model, which includes an ocean general circulation model (GCM), a biogeochemistry module, and a(More)
One of the most important large-scale ocean current systems for Earth's climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Here we review its stability properties and present new model simulations to study the AMOC's hysteresis response to freshwater perturbations. We employ seven different versions of an Ocean General Circulation Model by(More)
Rising atmospheric CO(2) levels will not only drive future global mean temperatures toward values unprecedented during the whole Quaternary but will also lead to massive acidification of sea water. This constitutes by itself an anthropogenic planetary-scale perturbation that could significantly modify oceanic biogeochemical fluxes and severely damage marine(More)
We demonstrate that photoswitchable markers enable fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy at high molecular concentration. Reversible photoswitching allows precise control of the density of fluorescing entities, because the equilibrium between the fluorescent ON- and the dark OFF-state can be shifted through optical irradiation at a specific wavelength.(More)
We present a new concept for an electronically tunable diode laser. It is based on an external-cavity configuration with simultaneous feedback and intracavity spatial separation of the laser's spectral components. The electronical tunability is achieved by insertion of a liquid-crystal array as an electronically controlled aperture into the region of(More)
Ocean warming has been implicated in the observed decline of oceanic phytoplankton biomass. Some studies suggest a physical pathway of warming via stratification and nutrient flux, and others a biological effect on plankton metabolic rates; yet the relative strength and possible interaction of these mechanisms remains unknown. Here, we implement projections(More)
Damage behavior of two different metallization systems (Ti/Al bilayer and Ta-Si-N/Cu/Ta-Si-N multilayer) as finger electrodes in surface acoustic waves (SAW) devices was investigated. A special test structure was developed for this reason. The samples were loaded with traveling SAWs varying input power and loading time. Simultaneously during these(More)
A simple new pump geometry for optical excitation of microcavities and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is presented. The technique circumvents the high reflectivity of the cavity stop band by excitation through the substrate at a large angle of incidence. Under these conditions, the reflectivity of the bottom Bragg reflector is small, and optical(More)
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are widely used for telecommunication or information technology systems. Trends to higher input power, higher frequencies or smaller structure devices, selectivity and bandwidth and better temperature stability are currently observed resulting in high power density levels. Particularly, this fact addresses to the thin(More)
Using the coupled climate model CLIMBER3a, we investigate changes in sea surface elevation due to a weakening of the thermohaline circulation (THC). In addition to a global sea level rise due to a warming of the deep sea, this leads to a regional dynamic sea level change which follows quasi-instantaneously any change in the ocean circulation. We show that(More)