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Functional properties of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) are strongly influenced by polysialylation. We used gene-targeting to generate mice lacking ST8SiaIV/PST-1, one of the polysialyltransferases responsible for addition of polysialic acid (PSA) to NCAM. Mice homozygous for the null mutation reveal normal development of gross anatomical(More)
(Dihydro)ceramide synthase 2 (cers2, formerly called lass2) is the most abundantly expressed member of the ceramide synthase gene family, which includes six isoforms in mice. CERS2 activity has been reported to be specific toward very long fatty acid residues (C22-C24). In order to study the biological role of CERS2, we have inactivated its coding region in(More)
BI 1356 [proposed trade name ONDERO; (R)-8-(3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-7-but-2-ynyl-3-methyl-1-(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-ylmethyl)-3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione] is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor under clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the potency, selectivity, mechanism, and duration of(More)
Nucleotide sugar transporters form a family of distantly related membrane proteins of the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. The first transporter sequences have been identified within the last 2 years. However, information about the secondary and tertiary structure for these molecules has been limited to theoretical considerations. In the(More)
1. Three new bradykinin (BK) antagonists, D-Arg0-Hyp3-Thi5-D-Tic7-Oic8-BK (compound I), D-Arg0-Hyp3-D-Tic7-Oic8-BK (compound II), and Arg(Tos)1-Hyp3-Thi5-D-Tic7-Oic8-BK (compound III), were tested against the effects of BK in 9 bioassay preparations including visceral smooth muscles, vasoconstriction, plasma protein extravasation, release of prostaglandin(More)
Translocation of nucleotide sugars across the membrane of the Golgi apparatus is a prerequisite for the synthesis of complex carbohydrate structures. While specific transport systems for different nucleotide sugars have been identified biochemically in isolated microsomes and Golgi vesicles, none of these transport proteins has been characterized at the(More)
Sphingolipids containing 2-hydroxylated fatty acids are among the most abundant lipid components of the myelin sheath and therefore are thought to play an important role in formation and function of myelin. To prove this hypothesis, we generated mice lacking a functional fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene. FA2H-deficient (FA2H(-/-)) mice lacked(More)
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutants belonging to the Lec2 complementation group are unable to translocate CMP-sialic acid to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Complementation cloning in these cells has recently been used to isolate cDNAs encoding the CMP-sialic acid transporter from mouse and hamster. The present study was carried out to determine the(More)
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency II (LAD II) is characterized by the lack of fucosylated glycoconjugates, including selectin ligands, causing immunodeficiency and severe mental and growth retardation. No deficiency in fucosyltransferase activities or in the activities of enzymes involved in GDP-fucose biosynthesis has been found. Instead, the transport of(More)
Obesity and dysfunctional energy partitioning can lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The antidiabetic thiazolidinediones shift the energy balance toward storage, leading to an increase in whole-body adiposity. These studies examine the effects of pioglitazone (Pio) on adipose tissue physiology, accumulation, and distribution(More)