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Epigenetics is a steadily growing research area. In many human diseases, especially in cancers, but also in autoimmune diseases, epigenetic aberrations have been found. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of synovial joints. Even though the etiology is not yet fully understood, rheumatoid(More)
AIMS Dysregulation of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) is a hallmark feature that has been described in several forms of pulmonary hypertension. We recently identified the microRNA miR-20a within a highly conserved pathway as a regulator of the expression of BMPR2. To address the pathophysiological relevance of this pathway in vivo, we(More)
Terrein is a fungal metabolite with ecological, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antioxidative activities. Although it is produced by Aspergillus terreus as one of its major secondary metabolites, not much is known about its biosynthetic pathway. Here, we describe an unexpected discovery of the terrein biosynthesis gene locus made while we were looking(More)
Propionate is a very abundant carbon source in soil, and many microorganisms are able to use this as the sole carbon source. Nevertheless, propionate not only serves as a carbon source for filamentous fungi but also acts as a preservative when added to glucose containing media. To solve this contradiction between carbon source and preservative effect,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) as posttranscriptional regulators of profibrotic genes in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS MicroRNA, which target collagens, were identified by in silico analysis. Expression of miRNA-29 (miR-29) was determined by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin biopsy and fibroblast(More)
Dysregulated expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) is a pathogenetic hallmark of pulmonary hypertension. Downregulation of BMPR2 protein but not mRNA has been observed in multiple animal models mimicking the disease, indicating a posttranscriptional mechanism of regulation. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression(More)
Propionate is used to protect bread and animal feed from moulds. The mode of action of this short-chain fatty acid was studied using Aspergillus nidulans as a model organism. The filamentous fungus is able to grow slowly on propionate, which is oxidized to acetyl-CoA via propionyl-CoA, methylcitrate and pyruvate. Propionate inhibits growth of A. nidulans on(More)
In Escherichia coli and Aspergillus nidulans, propionate is oxidized to pyruvate via the methylcitrate cycle. The last step of this cycle, the cleavage of 2-methylisocitrate to succinate and pyruvate is catalysed by 2-methylisocitrate lyase. The enzymes from both organisms were assayed with chemically synthesized threo-2-methylisocitrate; the(More)
The fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are major health threats for immune-compromised patients. Normally, macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes phagocytose inhaled Aspergillus conidia in the two-dimensional (2-D) environment of the alveolar lumen or Candida growing in tissue microabscesses, which are composed of a(More)