Matthew Whiteman

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Free radicals and other reactive species (RS) are thought to play an important role in many human diseases. Establishing their precise role requires the ability to measure them and the oxidative damage that they cause. This article first reviews what is meant by the terms free radical, RS, antioxidant, oxidative damage and oxidative stress. It then(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is synthesized in the body from L-cysteine by several enzymes including cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE). To date, there is little information about the potential role of H2S in inflammation. We have now investigated the part played by H2S in endotoxin-induced inflammation in the mouse. E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration(More)
BACKGROUND The potential biological significance of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has attracted growing interest in recent years. The aim of this study was to characterize a novel, water-soluble, slow-releasing H(2)S compound [morpholin-4-ium 4 methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate (GYY4137)] and evaluate its use as a tool to investigate the(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known cytotoxic gas. Recently it has been shown to stimulate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors to enhance long-term potentiation suggesting a novel neuromodulatory role in vivo. Endogenous levels of H2S in the brain are reported to range between 10 and 160 microm. Considerably lower H2S levels are reported in the brains(More)
Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a cytotoxic gas that has recently been proposed as a novel neuromodulator. Endogenous levels of H(2)S in the brain range between 50 and 160 microM, and considerably lower H(2)S levels are reported in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme that catalyses the formation of the(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) has traditionally been thought of as a phytotoxin, having deleterious effects on the plant growth and survival. It is now recognized that plants have enzymes which generate H₂S, cysteine desulfhydrase, and remove it, O-acetylserine lyase. Therefore, it has been suggested that H₂S is considered as a signalling molecule, alongside small(More)
The role of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in inflammation is controversial, with both pro- and antiinflammatory effects documented. Many studies have used simple sulfide salts as the source of H(2)S, which give a rapid bolus of H(2)S in aqueous solutions and thus do not accurately reflect the enzymatic generation of H(2)S. We therefore compared the effects of(More)
GYY4137 (morpholin-4-ium-4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate) is a slow-releasing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) donor. Administration of GYY4137 (50 mg/kg, iv) to anesthetized rats 10 min after lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4 mg/kg, iv) decreased the slowly developing hypotension. GYY4137 inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in rat blood and reduced(More)
This investigation is aimed to determine whether the biosynthesis of H(2)S, an endogenous vasodilator gas, is altered in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Plasma H(2)S concentration as well as the activity, and expression, of H(2)S synthesizing enzymes (namely cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-beta-synthetase (CBS)) were measured in various(More)
Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) on plant physiology have been previously studied, but such studies have relied on the use of NaSH as a method for supplying H(2)S to tissues. Now new compounds which give a less severe H(2)S shock and a more prolonged exposure to H(2)S have been developed. Here the effects of one such compound, GYY4137, has been(More)