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Myosin VI is involved in a wide variety of intracellular processes such as endocytosis, secretion and cell migration. Unlike almost all other myosins so far studied, it moves towards the minus end of actin filaments and is therefore likely to have unique cellular properties. However, its mechanism of force production and movement is not understood. Under(More)
Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of(More)
Advanced breast cancer is associated with the development of incurable bone metastasis. The two key processes involved, tumour cell homing to and subsequent colonisation of bone, remain to be clearly defined. Genetic studies have indicated that different genes facilitate homing and colonisation of secondary sites. To identify specific changes in gene and(More)
This review will acquaint the reader with normal development, structure, and function of the intervertebral disc. The disc is composed of the vertebral endplate, nucleus pulposus, and annulus fibrosus. These three functional components all serve important purposes for health and function of the disc. Nutrition and biomechanics are also discussed. The(More)
Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is one of the major non-structural proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in remodeling tissues. The functional significance of SPARC is emphasized by its origin in the first multicellular organisms and its high degree of evolutionary conservation. Although SPARC has been shown to act as a critical(More)
OBJECTIVE The diagnosis of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is primarily based on the degree of cerebellar tonsillar herniation even though it does not always correlate with symptoms. Neurological dysfunction in CM-I presumably results from brainstem compression. With the premise that conventional MRI does not reveal brain microstructural changes, this(More)
When researchers make alterations to the genetic programming algorithm they almost invariably wish to measure the change in performance of the evolutionary system. No one specific measure is standard , but Koza's computational effort statistic is frequently used [8]. In this paper the use of Koza's statistic is discussed and a study is made of three methods(More)
This paper analyses the reliability of confidence intervals for Koza's computational effort statistic. First, we conclude that dependence between the observed minimum generation and the observed cumulative probability of success leads to the production of more reliable confidence intervals for our preferred method. Second, we show that confidence intervals(More)
A large body of information suggests NSAIDS have a negative impact on the healing of bone. Although each clinical healing scenario presents a slightly different level of challenge, the healing of a posterolateral spinal fusion is one of the most difficult challenges in bony healing. Clinically, this results in a relatively high rate of nonunions using(More)