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While performing a visuo-motor task under incrementally-varied levels of difficulty, individuals were probed with a variety of novel, task-irrelevant, auditory stimuli. To determine the effect of task load on cerebral-cortical processing of these stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded while participants performed the task. We found that N1, P2, P3(More)
Excessive increases in task difficulty typically result in marked attenuation of cognitive-motor performance. The psychomotor efficiency hypothesis suggests that poor performance is mediated by non-essential neural activity and cerebral cortical networking (inefficient cortical dynamics). This phenomenon may underlie the inverse relationship between(More)
One characteristic of hypertension is a decreased endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation; however, the underlying mechanism is complex. In endothelial cells (ECs), L-arginine is the substrate for both NO synthase (NOS) and arginase. Because arginase has recently been shown to modulate NO-mediated dilation of coronary arterioles by(More)
Primary cultures of rat and mouse hippocampus and cerebral cortex are widely used to study neuronal properties such as axonal extension, synaptic transmission, and excitotoxicity. Short-term culturing of these neurons can be very straightforward and is perhaps easier than culturing cells lines once dissections are made and cell stocks are frozen. Long-term(More)
Since the first human procedure in the late 1980s, vascular stent implantation has been accepted as a standard form of treatment of atherosclerosis. Despite their tremendous success, these medical devices are not without their problems, as excessive neointimal hyperplasia can result in the formation of a new blockage (restenosis). Clinical data suggest that(More)
A growing body of research has illuminated beneficial effects of a single bout of physical activity (i.e., acute exercise) on cognitive function in school-age children. However, the influence of acute exercise on preschoolers' cognitive function has not been reported. To address this shortcoming, the current study examined the effects of a 30-min bout of(More)
The objective of this study was to develop and describe an experimental canine model of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (PSS) similar in nature to spontaneously occurring PSS. Sixteen dogs were used and were divided into a control (n = 6) and a diseased group (n = 10). Dogs of the diseased group were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg of body(More)
Shape memory polymer (SMP) foam possesses structural and mechanical characteristics that make them very promising as an alternative treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Our SMP foams have low densities, with porosities as high as 98.8%; favorable for catheter delivery and aneurysm filling, but unfavorable for attenuating X-rays. This lack of contrast(More)
Cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality are largely predicted by physical fitness. Exercise stimulates vascular mitochondrial biogenesis through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuins, and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a response absent in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that an agent regulating eNOS in the context of(More)
We examined whether the utility of a recently developed auditory probe technique for indexing cognitive workload was dependent on the stimulus properties of the probes. EEG was recorded while participants played a videogame under various levels of cognitive workload. At each level of workload, participants were probed with one of four different types of(More)