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The present paper analyzes the self-generated explanations (from talk-aloud protocols) that " Good " ond " Poor " students produce while studying worked-out exomples of mechanics problems, and their subsequent reliance on examples during problem solving. We find that " Good " students learn with understanding: They generate many explanations which refine(More)
Although naturally occurring smallpox was eliminated through the efforts of the World Health Organization Global Eradication Program, it remains possible that smallpox could be intentionally released. Here we examine the magnitude and duration of antiviral immunity induced by one or more smallpox vaccinations. We found that more than 90% of volunteers(More)
Approximately 50% of the US population received smallpox vaccinations before routine immunization ceased in 1972 for civilians and in 1990 for military personnel. Several studies have shown long-term immunity after smallpox vaccination, but skepticism remains as to whether this will translate into full protection against the onset of orthopoxvirus-induced(More)
Outbreaks of smallpox (i.e., caused by variola virus) resulted in up to 30% mortality, but those who survived smallpox infection were regarded as immune for life. Early studies described the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced after infection, but smallpox was eradicated before contemporary methods for quantifying T-cell memory were developed. To(More)
BACKGROUND Early Childhood Caries is a significant public health issue worldwide. Although much is known about the aetiology of dental caries, there is limited evidence on the understanding of caregivers on readily available early childhood oral health education materials. AIM The purpose of this study was to record how parents cope with dental health(More)
The durability of immune responses to smallpox vaccine is a subject of considerable debate. We compared cutaneous vaccinia responses in patients vaccinated in the distant past with vaccine-naïve individuals using serial close-up photographs. The previously vaccinated group had a significantly reduced time course and milder cutaneous reactions. Vaccinated(More)
One concern with traditional smallpox vaccination is inadvertent spread of virus to atopic or immunocompromised contacts. To reduce this risk, we tested the ability of povidone iodine to inactivate infectious virus at the vaccination site beginning at 7 days after transcutaneous smallpox vaccination. This ointment rapidly inactivated virus on the skin(More)