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Salvinorin A is a potent, selective nonnitrogenous kappa opioid agonist and the known psychoactive constituent of Salvia divinorum, a member of the mint family that has been used for centuries by Mazatec shamans of Mexico for divination and spiritual healing. S. divinorum has over the last several years gained increased popularity as a recreational drug.(More)
Several [corrected] discounting studies have use the R2 measure to identify data [corrected] with poor fits to a mathematical discounting model as nonsystematic data to be eliminated [corrected] Data from three previous delay-discounting studies (six separate groups, with a total of 161 individuals) were used to demonstrate why using R2 to assess the fits(More)
A within-subject design, using human participants, compared delay discounting functions for real and hypothetical money rewards. Both real and hypothetical rewards were studied across a range that included $10 to $250. For 5 of the 6 participants, no systematic difference in discount rate was observed in response to real and hypothetical choices, suggesting(More)
RATIONALE This dose-effect study extends previous observations showing that psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having persisting positive effects on attitudes, mood, and behavior. OBJECTIVES This double-blind study evaluated psilocybin (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/70 kg, p.o.) administered under supportive conditions. METHODS Participants were 18(More)
Research has found that nicotine-dependent individuals delay discount monetary gains at a higher rate than matched controls. Delay discount rates, however, have also been found to vary across within-subject variables such as the magnitude of the outcome (e.g., 10 dollars or 1,000 dollars), whether the outcome constitutes a gain or a loss, and the commodity(More)
Relative reinforcing efficacy refers to the behavior-strengthening or maintaining property of a reinforcer when compared to that of another reinforcer. Traditional measures of relative reinforcing efficacy sometimes have led to discordant results across and within studies. By contrast, previous investigations have found traditional measures to be congruent(More)
Salvinorin A is a kappa opioid agonist and the principal psychoactive constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum, which has increased in popularity as a recreational drug over the past decade. Few human studies have examined salvinorin A. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the dose-related effects of inhaled salvinorin A in individuals(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine dependence is associated with high rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. However, little is known about the responsible mechanism(s). METHODS Cocaine-dependent individuals (N=62) completed a novel Sexual Discounting Task assessing decisions between immediate unprotected sex and delayed sex with a condom across four(More)
Individuals with cocaine use disorders are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, partly due to higher rates of unprotected sex. Recent research suggests delay discounting of condom use is a factor in sexual HIV risk. Delay discounting is a behavioral economic concept describing how delaying an event reduces that event's value or impact on behavior.(More)
The Sexual Discounting Task uses the delay discounting framework to examine sexual HIV risk behavior. Previous research showed task performance to be significantly correlated with self-reported HIV risk behavior in cocaine dependence. Test-retest reliability and gender differences had remained unexamined. The present study examined the test-retest(More)