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Circadian clocks involve feedback loops that generate rhythmic expression of key genes. Molecular genetic studies in the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed a complex clock network. The first part of the network to be identified, a transcriptional feedback loop comprising TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and(More)
Our computational model of the circadian clock comprised the feedback loop between LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), and a predicted, interlocking feedback loop involving TOC1 and a hypothetical component Y. Experiments based on model predictions suggested GIGANTEA (GI) as a candidate(More)
We propose an alternative mechanism for the gating of biological membrane channels in response to membrane tension that involves a change in the slope of the membrane near the channel. Under biological membrane tensions we show that the energy difference between the closed (tilted) and open (untilted) states can far exceed k(B)T and is comparable to what is(More)
We incorporate a source of noise into a continuum neural field model by allowing the firing threshold to fluctuate noisily about a mean value, and examine traveling wave front solutions. Under certain conditions we are able to calculate the first and second moments of the distributions of the resulting time varying front speed and shape. This is then(More)
We study a physical model for the formation of bud-like invaginations on fluid lipid membranes under tension, and apply this model to caveolae formation. We demonstrate that budding can be driven by membrane-bound proteins, provided that they exert asymmetric forces on the membrane that give rise to bending moments. In particular, caveolae formation does(More)
We study a physical model for the interaction between general inclusions bound to fluid membranes that possess finite tension gamma, as well as the usual bending rigidity kappa. We are motivated by an interest in proteins bound to cell membranes that apply forces to these membranes, due to either entropic or direct chemical interactions. We find an exact(More)
We propose a theory for the force exerted by a fluctuating membrane on a polymer rod tip. Using statistical mechanical methods, the expression for the generated force is written in terms of the distance of the rod tip from the membrane "frame." We apply the theory in calculating the stall force and membrane displacement required to cease the growth of a(More)
The 24-hour rhythms of the circadian clock [1] allow an organism to anticipate daily environmental cycles, giving it a competitive advantage [2, 3]. Although clock components show little protein sequence homology across phyla, multiple feedback loops and light inputs are universal features of clock networks [4, 5]. Why have circadian systems evolved such a(More)
We present a model for the kinetics of spontaneous membrane domain (raft) assembly that includes the effect of membrane recycling ubiquitous in living cells. We show that domains can have a broad power-law distribution with an average radius that scales with the 1/4 power of the domain lifetime when the line tension at the domain edges is large. For(More)
The precise details of how myosin-V coordinates the biochemical reactions and mechanical motions of its two head elements to engineer effective processive molecular motion along actin filaments remain unresolved. We compare a quantitative kinetic model of the myosin-V walk, consisting of five basic states augmented by two further states to allow for futile(More)