Matthew Thomas Craig

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Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to(More)
The phylogenetic relationships among the fishes in the perciform tribe Epinephelini (Serranidae) have long been poorly understood, in large part because of the numerous taxa that must be considered and the large, circumtropical distribution of the group. In this study, genetic data from two nuclear (Tmo-4C4 and histone H3) and two mitochondrial (16S and(More)
Here we present a review of how the study of the geographic distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) has helped identify management units, evolutionary significant units, cryptic species, and areas of endemism, and how this information can help efforts to achieve effective conservation of coral reefs. These studies have confirmed the major(More)
Groupers are a valuable fishery resource of reef ecosystems and are among those species most vulnerable to fishing pressure because of life history characteristics including longevity, late sexual maturation and aggregation spawning. Despite their economic importance, few grouper fisheries are regularly monitored or managed at the species level, and many(More)
The last tropical connection between Atlantic and Indian-Pacific habitats closed c. 2 million years ago (Ma), with the onset of cold-water upwelling off southwestern Africa. Yet comparative morphology indicates more recent connections in several taxa, including reef-associated gobies (genus Gnatholepis). Coalescence and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA(More)
The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara (Epinephelidae) is an exceptionally large marine fish that inhabits sub-tropical and tropical waters of the Americas and western Africa. Due to a lack of readily observable morphological variation in specimens across its range, the goliath grouper has been regarded as a single species. We tested the hypothesis that(More)
To assess patterns of connectivity among populations of an Indo-Pacific reef fish, we surveyed mtDNA of the bigscale soldierfish Myripristis berndti (Holocentridae), which is concentrated on reefs at intermediate depths, but occurs to at least 160 m. Our multi-scale approach included sampling at 11 sites spanning the entire range of the species from the(More)
The size-advantage model asserts that mating behavior influences the incidence and direction of sex change in animals. Selection for protogyny (female to male sex change) occurs in mating systems in which large males monopolize and pair spawn with females; however, gonochorism (no sex change) is favored when adults spawn in groups and sperm competition is(More)
The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km(2), with more than 60 000 km(2) shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs.It contains 25-50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world's largest contiguous undamaged(More)
Results Here we show that previously hypothesized trans-isthmian geminate species are not each other's closest living relatives. Species oí Alphestes Bloch and Schneider in the eastern Pacific are sister taxa indicating post-closure speciation. Within Dermatolepis Gill, we identify a sister group relationship between the Caribbean and western Indian Ocean(More)