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The nucleus HVC (proper name) within the avian analog of mammal premotor cortex produces stereotyped instructions through the motor pathway leading to precise, learned vocalization by songbirds. Electrophysiological characterization of component HVC neurons is an important requirement in building a model to understand HVC function. The HVC contains three(More)
The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of(More)
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP or Duncan disease) is characterized by extreme sensitivity to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), resulting in a complex phenotype manifested by severe or fatal infectious mononucleosis, acquired hypogammaglobulinemia and malignant lymphoma. We have identified a gene, SH2D1A, that is mutated in XLP patients and encodes a(More)
Chromosome 6 is a metacentric chromosome that constitutes about 6% of the human genome. The finished sequence comprises 166,880,988 base pairs, representing the largest chromosome sequenced so far. The entire sequence has been subjected to high-quality manual annotation, resulting in the evidence-supported identification of 1,557 genes and 633 pseudogenes.(More)
The human genome sequence will provide a reference for measuring DNA sequence variation in human populations. Sequence variants are responsible for the genetic component of individuality, including complex characteristics such as disease susceptibility and drug response. Most sequence variants are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), where two alternate(More)
Neural activity within HVC (proper name), a premotor nucleus of the songbird telencephalon analogous to premotor cortical regions in mammals, controls the temporal structure of learned song in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). HVC is composed of a superficially isomorphic neuronal mosaic, implying that song is encoded in a distributed network within(More)
Chromosome 13 is the largest acrocentric human chromosome. It carries genes involved in cancer including the breast cancer type 2 (BRCA2) and retinoblastoma (RB1) genes, is frequently rearranged in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and contains the DAOA locus associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We describe completion and analysis of 95.5(More)
The finished sequence of human chromosome 20 comprises 59,187,298 base pairs (bp) and represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA. A single contig of 26 megabases (Mb) spans the entire short arm, and five contigs separated by gaps totalling 320 kb span the long arm of this metacentric chromosome. An additional 234,339 bp of sequence has been determined within(More)
We constructed maps for eight chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20, X and (previously) 22), representing one-third of the genome, by building landmark maps, isolating bacterial clones and assembling contigs. By this approach, we could establish the long-range organization of the maps early in the project, and all contig extension, gap closure and(More)
We demonstrate here the importance of interleukin signalling pathways in cognitive function and the normal physiology of the CNS. Thorough investigation of an MRX critical region in Xp22.1-21.3 enabled us to identify a new gene expressed in brain that is responsible for a non-specific form of X-linked mental retardation. This gene encodes a 696 amino acid(More)