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BACKGROUND In response to conflicting reward (Behavioral Approach System [BAS]) and/or punishment cues (Fight-Flight-Freeze System [FFFS]) the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) inhibits behavior, leading to increased attention to threat, high anxiety, and behavioral ambivalence. The role of BIS in alcohol misuse is complex, as anxiety promotes(More)
BACKGROUND There is great interest in the role of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral approach system (BAS) in the etiology of alcohol use because of the strong links of these systems to neuroscience and cognitive models of addiction. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory suggests that the strength of the BIS and BAS jointly(More)
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory predicts that those with a strong behavioral inhibition system (BIS) likely experience considerable anxiety and uncertainty during the transition out of university. Accordingly, they may continue to drink heavily to cope during this time (a period associated with normative reductions in heavy drinking), but only if they also(More)
According to theory, those high in social anxiety (SA) are at risk for drinking alcohol for coping and conformity motives, which in turn lead to alcohol use and related problems. Empirical tests of this risk pathway in non-clinical samples have produced mixed results. Although those high on SA may drink to cope with anxiety and to reduce the likelihood of(More)
INTRODUCTION According to theory, depressed individuals self-medicate their negative affect with alcohol. Due to isolation and interpersonal difficulties, undergraduates with elevated depressive symptoms may do much of their drinking alone and/or in intimate contexts (e.g., with family or romantic partners) rather than at normative social events (e.g.,(More)
Predrinking (or pregaming) is common among undergraduates and has been linked with problem alcohol use. While many students predrink to save money, evidence suggests that some students predrink to cope with social anxiety (SA). Tension reduction and cognitive theories predict that those high in SA may predrink to reduce anticipatory anxiety before attending(More)
Mindfulness encompasses four core skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment; which aim to increase one's awareness, tolerance, and acceptance of internal experiences (Baer et al., 2004). Despite promising clinical results that mindfulness reduces alcohol craving and relapse, complementary etiological research is(More)
Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) predicts that the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) may relate to coping-motivated problem gambling, given its central role in anxiety. Studies examining the BIS-problem gambling association, however, are mixed. The revised RST posits that the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) may moderate the effect of the BIS(More)
BACKGROUND Undergraduate students experience diverse problems because of alcohol use. Accordingly, the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ) was developed to assess multiple domains of alcohol-related problems. A preliminary psychometric evaluation in a U.S. college sample showed support for 8 factors that were invariant across gender and(More)
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