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OBJECT Ependymomas are primary central nervous system tumors that occur more frequently in the spines of adults than they do there in children. Previous studies consist mainly of retrospective single-institutional experiences or case studies. In this study, a comprehensive literature review was performed on reported cases of spinal ependymoma treated with(More)
Although the World Health Organization (WHO) categorizes spinal ependymomas into three histological grades, difference in surgical outcomes between WHO grades I and II tumors are unclear. For these benign tumors, prognosis may be best determined by factors other than tumor grade alone, such as extent of resection. To analyze the effects of the extent of(More)
OBJECT Extent of resection (EOR) has been shown to be an important prognostic factor for survival in patients undergoing initial resection of glioblastoma (GBM), but the significance of EOR at repeat craniotomy for recurrence remains unclear. In this study the authors investigate the impact of EOR at initial and repeat resection of GBM on overall survival.(More)
CNS myelin is strongly inhibitory to growing axons and is thought to be a major contributor to CNS axon regenerative failure. Although a number of proteins present in myelin, including Nogo, MAG, and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), have been identified as myelin-associated inhibitors, studies of mice lacking these genes suggest that additional(More)
Despite the relatively low-grade of most central neurocytomas (CN), evidence suggests the existence of an aggressive subset with a propensity for recurrence. Recent studies have found the MIB-1 labeling index to be a prognostic indicator in CN. Here we review our experience with CN to analyze the relationships between extent of resection, adjuvant therapy,(More)
Mechanisms of invasion in glioblastoma (GBM) relate to differential expression of proteins conferring increased motility and penetration of the extracellular matrix. CD97 is a member of the epidermal growth factor seven-span transmembrane family of adhesion G-protein coupled receptors. These proteins facilitate mobility of leukocytes into tissue. In this(More)
OBJECT Ependymoma is a common CNS tumor in children, with spinal cord ependymomas making up 13.1% of all ependymomas in this age group. The clinical features that affect prognosis in pediatric spinal cord ependymomas are not well understood. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether a tumor location along the spinal cord is(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant type of primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis. These tumors consist of a heterogeneous population of malignant cells, including well-differentiated tumor cells and less differentiated cells with stem cell properties. These cancer stem cells, known as brain tumor initiating cells, likely contribute to glioma(More)
BACKGROUND Mechanisms of glioma invasion remain to be fully elucidated. Glioma cells within glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) range from well-differentiated tumor cells to less-differentiated brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs). The β2-subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, called the adhesion molecule on glia (AMOG), is highly expressed in normal glia but is thought(More)
Atypical meningiomas (AMs) and malignant meningiomas (MMs) are tumors with a lower incidence and poorer prognosis than benign meningiomas. The role of radiotherapy as an adjuvant to surgical resection, especially for AMs, is incompletely defined. In this study, the English-language literature was systematically reviewed for studies that reported tumor(More)