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Neuroimaging with iron-sensitive MR sequences [gradient echo T2* and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)] identifies small signal voids that are suspected brain microbleeds. Though the clinical significance of these lesions remains uncertain, their distribution and prevalence correlates with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), hypertension, smoking, and(More)
Dysfunctional homeostasis of transition metals is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although questioned by some, brain copper, zinc, and particularly iron overload are widely accepted features of AD which have led to the hypothesis that oxidative stress generated from aberrant homeostasis of these transition metals(More)
A new iron sensitive MR sequence (susceptibility weighted imaging - SWI) enabling the simultaneous quantitation of regional brain iron levels and brain microbleeds (BMB) has been acquired serially to study dementia. Cohorts of mildly cognitively impaired (MCI) elderly (n = 73) and cognitively normal participants (n = 33) have been serially evaluated for up(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are two common pathologies associated with β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and inflammation in the brain; neither is well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate human post-mortem brains from AD subjects with purely parenchymal pathology, and those with concomitant CAA (and(More)
Iron-mediated tissue damage is present in cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma. Brain microbleeds are often present in these maladies and are assuming increasing clinical importance. Because brain microbleeds present a source of pathologic iron to the brain, the noninvasive quantification of this iron pool is potentially valuable.(More)
Brain microbleeds (BMB) are associated with chronic and acute cerebrovascular disease and present a source of pathologic iron to the brain proportional to extravasated blood. Therefore, BMB iron content is potentially a valuable biomarker. We tested noninvasive phase image methods to quantify iron content and estimate true source diameter (i.e., unobscured(More)
Trace metal homeostasis is tightly controlled in the brain, as even a slight dysregulation may severely impact normal brain function. This is especially apparent in Alzheimer's disease, where brain homeostasis of trace metals such as copper and iron is dysregulated. As it is known that iron and copper metabolism are linked, we wanted to investigate if a(More)
Brain microbleeds (BMB) are associated with chronic and acute cerebrovascular disease. Because BMB present in the brain is a source of potentially cytotoxic iron proportional to the volume of extravasated blood, BMB iron content is a potentially valuable biomarker both to assess tissue risk and small cerebral vessel health. We recently reported methods to(More)
iii Each person whose signature appears below certifies that this dissertation in his/her opinion is adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree Doctor of Philosophy. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am extraordinarily grateful to Dr. Wolff Kirsch whose support and guidance have shaped this work and greatly impacted me as a scientist. Dr. Kirsch(More)
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