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Neuroimaging with iron-sensitive MR sequences [gradient echo T2* and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)] identifies small signal voids that are suspected brain microbleeds. Though the clinical significance of these lesions remains uncertain, their distribution and prevalence correlates with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), hypertension, smoking, and(More)
Epidemiological, cellular, and animal studies suggest that abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism may contribute to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease by increasing the generation of beta-amyloid (Abeta). However, the mechanism by which cholesterol increases Abeta levels is not fully understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that feeding rabbits(More)
Dysfunctional homeostasis of transition metals is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although questioned by some, brain copper, zinc, and particularly iron overload are widely accepted features of AD which have led to the hypothesis that oxidative stress generated from aberrant homeostasis of these transition metals(More)
A new iron sensitive MR sequence (susceptibility weighted imaging - SWI) enabling the simultaneous quantitation of regional brain iron levels and brain microbleeds (BMB) has been acquired serially to study dementia. Cohorts of mildly cognitively impaired (MCI) elderly (n = 73) and cognitively normal participants (n = 33) have been serially evaluated for up(More)
The Ames dwarf mouse has a long lifespan and is characterized by a marked resistance to cellular stress, an event that is implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with aging, including Alzheimer's disease. However, very little is known on the extent to which the Ames dwarf mouse is protected against Alzheimer's(More)
Hypercholesterolemia is a potential trigger of Alzheimer's disease, and is thought to increase brain levels of beta-amyloid (Abeta) and iron. However, animal models to address the mechanisms by which Abeta and iron accumulation may cause neuronal damage are poorly defined. To address this question, we fed adult rabbits a 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 7(More)
Through a comprehensive analysis of organellar markers in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, we document a massive accumulation of lysosome-like organelles at amyloid plaques and establish that the majority of these organelles reside within swollen axons that contact the amyloid deposits. This close spatial relationship between axonal lysosome(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are two common pathologies associated with β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and inflammation in the brain; neither is well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate human post-mortem brains from AD subjects with purely parenchymal pathology, and those with concomitant CAA (and(More)
Iron-mediated tissue damage is present in cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma. Brain microbleeds are often present in these maladies and are assuming increasing clinical importance. Because brain microbleeds present a source of pathologic iron to the brain, the noninvasive quantification of this iron pool is potentially valuable.(More)
Brain microbleeds (BMB) are associated with chronic and acute cerebrovascular disease and present a source of pathologic iron to the brain proportional to extravasated blood. Therefore, BMB iron content is potentially a valuable biomarker. We tested noninvasive phase image methods to quantify iron content and estimate true source diameter (i.e., unobscured(More)