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Studies of the broader autism phenotype, and of subtle changes in autism symptoms over time, have been compromised by a lack of established quantitative assessment tools. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale) is a new instrument that can be completed by parents and/or teachers in 15-20 minutes. We compared the(More)
Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but(More)
OBJECTIVE The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) presently relies on radiographic assessments of imperfect specificity. Recent data using T2* methodology for the detection of the "central vessel sign" (CVS) in MS lesions suggests this novel MRI technique may distinguish MS from other disorders. Our aim was to determine if evaluation for CVS on 3T FLAIR*(More)
BACKGROUND Prior research has indicated neuroanatomical abnormalities of the thalamus in schizophrenia. To study the possible pathogenesis, an animal model of neurodevelopmental thalamic damage has been developed by applying low-dose radiation to rhesus monkeys in early gestation. Irradiated monkeys sacrificed as infants demonstrate neuronal losses in(More)
White matter of the brain has been demonstrated to have multiple relaxation components. Among them, the short transverse relaxation time component (T2<40 ms; T2⁎<25 ms at 3 T) has been suggested to originate from myelin water whereas long transverse relaxation time components have been associated with axonal and/or interstitial water. In myelin water(More)
The formation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions is a complex process involving inflammation, tissue damage, and tissue repair - all of which are visible on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and potentially modifiable by pharmacological therapy. In this paper, we introduce two statistical models for relating voxel-level, longitudinal,(More)
Radiation effectively treats brain tumors and other pathologies but dose and treatment plans are limited by normal tissue injury, a major cause of morbidity in survivors. Clinically significant normal tissue injury can occur even with therapies that target pathological tissue and limit out-of-target irradiation. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying normal(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to develop a model that integrates imaging and clinical information observed at lesion incidence for predicting the recovery of white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS Demographic, clinical, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained from 60 subjects with MS as part of a natural(More)
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