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The middle ear muscle reflex has been implicated in modulation of auditory input and protection of the inner ear from acoustic trauma. However, the identification of neurons in the cochlear nuclei participating in this reflex has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we injected the retrograde transynaptic tracer pseudorabies virus into single(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Traditional methods for the evaluation of in vivo spine kinematics introduce significant measurement variability. Digital videofluoroscopic techniques coupled with computer-assisted measurements have been shown to reduce such error, as well as provide detailed information about spinal motion otherwise unobtainable by standard(More)
STUDY DESIGN In vitro flexibility testing of the lumbar spine. OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to evaluate a motion-preserving posterior dynamic stabilization (PDS) implant based on newly defined parameters describing interpedicular kinematics. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA PDS implants have been designed as either motion-preserving or(More)
BACKGROUND A thorough understanding of the biomechanical characteristics of the healthy human spine is critical in furthering the treatment of spinal pathology. The goal of this study was to investigate the motion of the intact lumbar spine segment as measured by range of motion (ROM), and to investigate the dependencies thereof on gender and intervertebral(More)
BACKGROUND Pure-moment loading is the test method of choice for spinal implant evaluation. However, the apparatuses and boundary conditions employed by laboratories in performing spine flexibility testing vary. The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences, if they exist, in intervertebral range of motion (ROM) resulting from different(More)
BACKGROUND The influence of interbody cage positioning on clinical outcomes following lumbar interbody fusion is not well understood, though it has been hypothesized to play a significant role in stability of the treated level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any correlations between cage placement in TLIF procedures and post-operative kinematics.(More)
BACKGROUND Pure moment testing is a common method used in cadaveric spine testing. The fundamental basis for the widespread acceptance of applying a pure moment is uniform loading along the column of the spine. To our knowledge, this protocol has not been experimentally verified on a multi-degree of freedom testing apparatus. Given its ubiquitous use in(More)
BACKGROUND Lumbar interbody fusion is a common treatment for a variety of spinal pathologies. It has been hypothesized that insufficient mechanical loading of the interbody graft can prevent proper fusion of the joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical stability and anterior column loading sharing characteristics of a posterior(More)
Introduction. Pedicle based posterior dynamic stabilization systems aim to stabilize the pathologic spine while also allowing sufficient motion to mitigate adjacent level effects. Two flexible constructs that have been proposed to act in such a manner, the Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization System and PEEK rod, have yet to be directly compared in vitro to a(More)