Matthew S. Joens

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While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad(More)
Myelination in the central nervous system is the process by which oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons. Myelination enables neurons to transmit information more quickly and more efficiently and allows for more complex brain functions; yet, remarkably, the underlying mechanism by which myelination occurs is still not fully(More)
Energy production by chloroplasts and mitochondria causes constant oxidative damage. A functioning photosynthetic cell requires quality-control mechanisms to turn over and degrade chloroplasts damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we generated a conditionally lethal Arabidopsis mutant that accumulated excess protoporphyrin IX in the chloroplast(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has evolved various mechanisms by which the bacterium can maintain homeostasis under numerous environmental assaults generated by the host immune response. M. tuberculosis harbors enzymes involved in the oxidative stress response that aid in survival during the production of reactive oxygen species in activated macrophages.(More)
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has long been the standard in imaging the sub-micrometer surface ultrastructure of both hard and soft materials. In the case of biological samples, it has provided great insights into their physical architecture. However, three of the fundamental challenges in the SEM imaging of soft materials are that of limited imaging(More)
We hypothesized that basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) MIST1 (BHLHA15) is a "scaling factor" that universally establishes secretory morphology in cells that perform regulated secretion. Here, we show that targeted deletion of MIST1 caused dismantling of the secretory apparatus of diverse exocrine cells. Parietal cells (PCs), whose function is to pump acid into(More)
One of the fundamental limitations of optical microscopy is that of diffraction, or in essence, how small a beam of light can be focused by using an optical lens system. This constraint, or barrier if you will, was theoretically described by Ernst Abbe in 1873 and is roughly equal to half the wavelength of light used to probe the system. Many structures,(More)
Myelination in the central nervous system is the process by which oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons. Myelination enables neurons to transmit informationmore quickly and more efficiently and allows for more complex brain functions; yet, remarkably, the underlying mechanism by which myelination occurs is still not fully(More)
Large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) mediate the regulated release of neuropeptides and peptide hormones. They form at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) where their soluble content aggregates to form a dense core, but the mechanisms controlling biogenesis are still not completely understood. Recent studies have implicated the peripheral membrane protein HID-1 in(More)
From plants to animals, the helium ion microscope (HIM) facilitates ultrastructural investigations of biological systems at both high contrast and resolution without the need for heavy metal coatings [1]. In this study, we describe not only the advantages of HIM over the low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) of plant tissues, but will also(More)