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In neurons, the axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized region near the start of the axon that is the site of action potential initiation. The precise location of the AIS varies across and within different neuronal types, and has been linked to cells' information-processing capabilities; however, the factors determining AIS position in individual(More)
The adult brain is a plastic place. To ensure that the mature nervous system's control of behaviour is flexible in the face of a varying environment, morphological and physiological changes are possible at many levels, including that of the entire cell. In two areas of the adult brain - the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus - new neurons are generated(More)
Spontaneous activity patterns in the developing retina appear important for the functional organization of the visual system. We show here that an absence of early retinal waves in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is associated with both gain and loss of functional organization in the dorsal lateral geniculate(More)
We present a quantitative analysis of the visual response properties of single neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of wild-type C57Bl/6J mice. Extracellular recordings were made from single dLGN cells in mice under halothane and nitrous oxide anesthesia. After mapping the receptive fields (RFs) of these cells using reverse correlation of(More)
Neurogenesis persists within a few restricted areas of the adult mammalian brain, giving rise to neurons that functionally integrate into preexisting circuits. One of these areas, the subventricular zone (SVZ), was believed, until recently, to be the unique source providing the adult olfactory bulb (OB) with newborn neurons. Because of the fact that(More)
Neurons implement a variety of plasticity mechanisms to alter their function over timescales ranging from seconds to days. One powerful means of controlling excitability is to directly modulate the site of spike initiation, the axon initial segment (AIS). However, all plastic structural AIS changes reported thus far have been slow, involving days of(More)
Recent developments have used light-activated channels or transporters to modulate neuronal activity. One such genetically-encoded modulator of activity, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), depolarizes neurons in response to blue light. In this work, we first conducted electrophysiological studies of the photokinetics of hippocampal cells expressing ChR2, for(More)
activity. Between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P10 in this species, spontaneous activity is mediated by nicotinic cholinergic transmission (Feller et al., 1996; Penn et al., 1998) and, in the form of either action potential firing (Meister et al., 1991) or transient influxes of calcium (e.g.,, takes the form of waves that sweep periodically across the retina.(More)
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized neuronal subcompartment located at the beginning of the axon that is crucially involved in both the generation of action potentials and the regulation of neuronal polarity. We recently showed that prolonged neuronal depolarization produces a distal shift of the entire AIS structure away from the cell body, a(More)
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure near the start of the axon that is a site of neuronal plasticity. Changes in activity levels in vitro and in vivo can produce structural AIS changes in excitatory cells that have been linked to alterations in excitability, but these effects have never been described in inhibitory interneurons. In the(More)