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The definition of centromeres of human chromosomes requires a complete genomic understanding of these regions. Toward this end, we report integration of physical mapping, genetic, and functional approaches, together with sequencing of selected regions, to define the centromere of the human X chromosome and to explore the evolution of sequences responsible(More)
Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men. Despite a considerable familial component to TGCT risk, no genetic change that confers increased risk has been substantiated to date. The human Y chromosome carries a number of genes specifically involved in male germ cell development, and deletion of the AZFc region at Yq11 is the(More)
Covalent modification of DNA distinguishes cellular identities and is crucial for regulating the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The recent demonstration that 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) may be further modified to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in ES cells has revealed a novel regulatory paradigm to modulate the epigenetic(More)
Human centromeres are specialized chromatin domains containing the centromeric histone H3 variant CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosomes are interspersed with nucleosomes containing histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4, distinguishing centromeric chromatin (CEN chromatin) from flanking heterochromatin that is defined by H3 lysine 9 methylation. To understand the(More)
The sequence of the human genome is not yet complete, and major gaps remain at the centromere region of each chromosome, which is comprised of repetitive alpha satellite DNA. In this article, we describe the sequences in the vicinity of the centromere that are included in the current genome assembly, analyze the approximately 7Mb of alpha satellite that(More)
PURPOSE Copy number variants have emerged as a major cause of human disease such as autism and intellectual disabilities. Because copy number variants are common in normal individuals, determining the functional and clinical significance of rare copy number variants in patients remains challenging. The adoption of whole-genome chromosomal microarray(More)
Alpha-satellite is a family of tandemly repeated sequences found at all normal human centromeres. In addition to its significance for understanding centromere function, alpha-satellite is also a model for concerted evolution, as alpha-satellite repeats are more similar within a species than between species. There are two types of alpha-satellite in the(More)
The HYDIN gene located in human chromosome band 16q22.2 is a large gene encompassing 423 kb of genomic DNA that has been suggested as a candidate for an autosomal recessive form of congenital hydrocephalus. We have found that the human HYDIN locus has been very recently duplicated, with a nearly identical 360-kb paralogous segment inserted on chromosome(More)
Human artificial chromosomes have been used to model requirements for human chromosome segregation and to explore the nature of sequences competent for centromere function. Normal human centromeres require specialized chromatin that consists of alpha satellite DNA complexed with epigenetically modified histones and centromere-specific proteins. While(More)
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1% of the population and has a strong genetic underpinning. Recently, genome-wide analysis of copy-number variation (CNV) has implicated rare and de novo events as important in SZ. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of 245 SZ cases and 490 controls, all of Ashkenazi Jewish(More)