Matthew Robert Sandbulte

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BACKGROUND A pandemic H5N1 influenza outbreak would be facilitated by an absence of immunity to the avian-derived virus in the human population. Although this condition is likely in regard to hemagglutinin-mediated immunity, the neuraminidase (NA) of H5N1 viruses (avN1) and of endemic human H1N1 viruses (huN1) are classified in the same serotype. We(More)
BACKGROUND Antibodies to neuraminidase (NA) contribute to protection during influenza virus infection, but NA inhibition (NI) titers are not routinely analyzed in vaccine trials. One reason is the cumbersome nature of the conventional thiobarbituric acid (TBA) NI assay, which uses chemical methods to quantify free sialic acid following incubation of NA with(More)
Vaccines are instrumental in controlling the burden of influenza virus infection in humans and animals. Antibodies raised against both major viral surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), can contribute to protective immunity. Vaccine-induced HA antibodies have been characterized extensively, and they generally confer protection by(More)
Interferons (IFNs) are antiviral cytokines that selectively regulate gene expression through several signaling pathways including nuclear factor kappaB(NFkappaB). To investigate the specific role of NFkappaB in IFN signaling, we performed gene expression profiling after IFN treatment of embryonic fibroblasts derived from normal mice or mice with targeted(More)
Seasonal epidemics caused by influenza virus are driven by antigenic changes (drift) in viral surface glycoproteins that allow evasion from preexisting humoral immunity. Antigenic drift is a feature of not only the hemagglutinin (HA), but also of neuraminidase (NA). We have evaluated the antigenic evolution of each protein in H1N1 and H3N2 viruses used in(More)
House sparrows, European starlings, and Carneux pigeons were inoculated with 4 influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from different avian species. We monitored viral replication, death after infection, and transmission to uninfected contact birds of the same species. Sparrows were susceptible to severe infection; 66%-100% of birds died within 4-7 days. High(More)
Mechanisms underlying the virulence of H5N1 influenza viruses in humans are poorly understood, though evidence of hyperinflammation and systemic viral replication has been reported. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs), a major source of type I interferon, potentially affect host defense against influenza viruses. To analyze how influenza virus infection(More)
Destruction of peripheral lymphocytes and detrimental alterations in hematopoietic precursors are associated with influenza virus infection in birds and humans. A prominent feature among H5N1 influenza-virus-infected patients with a severe or fatal outcome was found to be lymphopenia and reactive hemophagocytosis. We show here that NS1 protein from human(More)
Calves lacking detectable serum antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were screened for virus-specific T-cell memory. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in vitro with live BRSV and analyzed by dual-color flow cytometry for surface expression of CD25 on CD4(+), CD8(+), and gammadeltaT-cells. Significant recall responses(More)
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years,(More)