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BACKGROUND Previous neuroimaging studies of working memory (WM) in schizophrenia, typically focusing on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, yield conflicting results, possibly because of varied choice of tasks and analysis techniques. We examined neural function changes at several WM loads to derive a more complete picture of WM dysfunction in schizophrenia. (More)
First-grade children engaged in seatwork behaviors under reinforcement schedules established according to the Premack Principle and the Response Deprivation Hypothesis. Across two experiments, schedules were presented to the children in a counter-balanced fashion which fulfilled the conditions of one, both, or neither of the hypotheses. Duration of on-task(More)
The purpose of this study was to develop a self-instructional package that would aid highly distractible children in increasing their attending behavior in a training and two generalization (a one-to-one and a classroom) situations. Three untrained subjects were monitored for general comparison and social validation purposes. One of these control subjects(More)
The amygdala is implicated in emotional processing, and its rich subcortical connections have led to suggestions that processing of emotional stimuli occurs independently of attention. Using a novel attentional manipulation in conjunction with fMRI, we showed that emotion-related amygdala activity was modulated by attention, but that the degree of such(More)
Studies demonstrating selective brain networks subserving motivation and mentalization (i.e. attributing states of mind to others) during social interactions have not investigated their mutual independence. We report the results of two fMRI studies using a competitive game requiring players to use implicit 'on-line' mentalization simultaneously with(More)
Cocaine addiction is characterized by impulsivity, impaired social relationships, and abnormal mesocorticolimbic reward processing, but their interrelationships relative to stages of cocaine addiction are unclear. We assessed blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal in ventral and dorsal striatum during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in(More)
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by core deficits in social functions. Two theories have been suggested to explain these deficits: mind-blindness theory posits impaired mentalizing processes (i.e. decreased ability for establishing a representation of others' state of mind), while social motivation theory proposes that diminished reward(More)
Except for a few studies, most research investigating correspondence training procedures has been more analogue in nature. The purpose of the present set of studies was to examine whether a "say-do" correspondence training technique could be used with children in special education classes to improve classroom behavior. The specific behaviors targeted for(More)
The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal measured in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments is generally regarded as sluggish and poorly suited for probing neural function at the rapid timescales involved in sentence comprehension. However, recent studies have shown the value of acquiring data with very short repetition times (TRs),(More)
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