INTRODUCTION Despite the importance of dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia, very few studies have addressed anomalies in the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of dopamine, and a possible contributor to the anomalies in… (More)
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The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including… (More)
Resistance to high concentrations of bile salts in the human intestinal tract is vital for the survival of enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Although the tripartite AcrAB-TolC efflux system plays a significant role in this resistance, it is purported that other efflux pumps must also be involved. We provide evidence from a comprehensive suite of… (More)
Perturbations in metabolism are a well-documented but complex facet of schizophrenia pathology. Optimal cellular performance requires the proper functioning of the electron transport chain, which is constituted by four enzymes located within the inner membrane of mitochondria. These enzymes create a proton gradient that is used to power the enzyme ATP… (More)
Previous work from our laboratory showed deficits in tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression within the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the nature and specific location of these deficits within the SN/VTA. The present study had two aims: (1) test if tyrosine hydroxylase deficits could be… (More)
Publications Lien's advisees indicated by: graduate (‡), undergraduates (†) students and interns () Special edition of [P65] featuring selected papers. Listed by CAGD as one of the most cited paper since 2007.
A standard use of triangulation in GIS is to model terrain surface using TIN. In many simulation models of physical phenomena, triangulation is often used to depict the entire spatial domain, which may include buildings, landmarks and other surface objects in addition to the terrain surface. Creating a seamless surface of complex building structures… (More)