Matthew R. Whorton

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G protein-gated K(+) channels (Kir3.1-Kir3.4) control electrical excitability in many different cells. Among their functions relevant to human physiology and disease, they regulate the heart rate and govern a wide range of neuronal activities. Here, we present the first crystal structures of a G protein-gated K(+) channel. By comparing the wild-type(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as the senses of smell and taste. The structures of the GPCR rhodopsin and several G proteins have been determined by x-ray crystallography, yet the organization of the signaling complex between GPCRs and G(More)
G-protein-gated inward rectifier K(+) (GIRK) channels allow neurotransmitters, through G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation, to control cellular electrical excitability. In cardiac and neuronal cells this control regulates heart rate and neural circuit activity, respectively. Here we present the 3.5 Å resolution crystal structure of the mammalian GIRK2(More)
The voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel Kv1.5 mediates the I(Kur) repolarizing current in human atrial myocytes and regulates vascular tone in multiple peripheral vascular beds. Understanding the complex regulation of Kv1.5 function is of substantial interest because it represents a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of atrial fibrillation(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane domain proteins that transduce extracellular signals across the plasma membrane and couple to the heterotrimeric family of G proteins. Like most intrinsic membrane proteins, GPCRs are capable of oligomerization, the function of which has only been established for a few different receptor systems.(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are widely expressed hepta-helical receptors with tightly regulated pleiotropic effects. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) plays an important role in GPCR trafficking and is the subject of intense research. However, the mechanisms underlying activation and regulation of ARF6 by GPCRs are poorly characterized. Here we(More)
Hydrolysis of fluorescent GTP analogues BODIPY FL guanosine 5 '-O-(thiotriphosphate) (BGTPgammaS) and BODIPY FL GTP (BGTP) by Galpha(i1) and Galpha was characterized using on-line capillary electrophoresis (o) laser-induced fluorescence assays in order that changes in sub-strate, substrate-enzyme complex, and product could be monitored separately. Apparent(More)
KATP channels are metabolic sensors that couple cell energetics to membrane excitability. In pancreatic β-cells, channels formed by SUR1 and Kir6.2 regulate insulin secretion and are the targets of antidiabetic sulfonylureas. Here, we used cryo-EM to elucidate structural basis of channel assembly and gating. The structure, determined in the presence of ATP(More)
GIRK channels control spike frequency in atrial pacemaker cells and inhibitory potentials in neurons. By directly responding to G proteins, PIP2 and Na(+), GIRK is under the control of multiple signaling pathways. In this study, the mammalian GIRK2 channel has been purified and reconstituted in planar lipid membranes and effects of Gα, Gβγ, PIP2 and Na(+)(More)
The primary hypothesis of the upcoming NIH-sponsored phase III infant hydroxyurea (BABY HUG) trial is that hydroxyurea can prevent chronic organ damage in infants with sickle cell anemia. Since hydroxyurea is currently commercially available only in capsules, a liquid formulation of hydroxyurea is needed for young patients. Hydroxyurea oral solutions were(More)