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Prenatal and early-life exposure to lead is hypothesized to have a range of adverse effects on childhood health. Drawing on data collected from a population-based prospective cohort study of a highly exposed town and a low exposed town in Kosovo, Yugoslavia we assessed whether elevated maternal blood lead (BPb) concentrations during pregnancy were(More)
BACKGROUND Retention of children in HIV care is essential for prevention of disease progression and mortality. METHODS Retrospective cohort of children (aged 0 to <15 years) initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) at health facilities in Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Tanzania, from January 2005 to June 2011. Retention was defined as the proportion of(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare pre and post-ART attrition between youth (15-24 years) and other patients in HIV care, and to investigate factors associated with attrition among youth. DESIGN Cohort study utilizing routinely collected patient-level data from 160 HIV clinics in Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Rwanda. METHODS Patients at least 10 years of age(More)
BACKGROUND Loss to follow-up (LTF) after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is common in HIV clinics. We examined the effect of availability of adherence support and active patient outreach services on patient attrition following ART initiation. METHODS AND FINDINGS This ecologic study examined clinic attrition rates (total attrition, LTF, and death)(More)
BACKGROUND Limited information exists on adults ≥50 years receiving HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODOLOGY Using routinely-collected longitudinal patient-level data among 391,111 adults ≥15 years enrolling in HIV care from January 2005-December 2010 and 184,689 initiating ART, we compared characteristics and outcomes between older (≥50 years) and(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the extraordinary scale up of HIV prevention, care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the past decade, the overall effectiveness of HIV programs has been significantly hindered by high levels of attrition across the HIV care continuum. Data from "real-life" settings are needed on the effectiveness of an easy to(More)
BACKGROUND The traditional HIV treatment cascade has been noted to have limitations. A proposed comprehensive HIV care cascade that uses cohort methodology offers additional information as it accounts for all patients. Using data from 4 countries, we compare patient outcomes using both approaches. METHODS Data from 390,603 HIV-infected adults (>15 years)(More)
BACKGROUND Challenges to ensuring timely linkage to and retention in HIV care are well documented. Combination intervention strategies can be effective in improving the HIV care continuum. Data on feasibility and acceptability of intervention types within intervention packages are limited. METHODS The Engage4Health study assessed the effectiveness of a(More)
Normal endocrine function in utero and early in childhood influences later height and weight attainment. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants with suspected endocrine-disrupting properties. PCBs may mimic or inhibit hormone and endocrine processes based in part on their structural configuration, with(More)
BACKGROUND We describe trends in characteristics and outcomes among adults initiating HIV care and treatment in Ethiopia from 2006-2011. METHODS We conducted a retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-positive adults (≥ 15 years) enrolling at 56 Ethiopian health facilities from 2006-2011. We investigated trends over time in the proportion enrolling(More)