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BACKGROUND The recent outbreaks of avian influenza (H5N1) have placed a renewed emphasis on preparing for an influenza pandemic in humans. Of particular concern in this planning is the allocation of resources, such as ventilators and antiviral medications, which will likely become scarce during a pandemic. METHODS We applied a collaborative process using(More)
A major outbreak involving an Escherichia coli strain that was resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins occurred in Toronto and surrounding regions in 2000 to 2002. We report the complete sequence of a plasmid, pC15-1a, that was found associated with the outbreak strain. Plasmid pC15-1a is a circular molecule of 92,353 bp consisting of two distinct(More)
Progressive immune-associated injury is a hallmark of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Viral evasion of innate immunity, hypercytokinemia and systemic immunopathology in the SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV) infected host have been suggested as possible mechanisms for the cause of severe pathology and morbidity in SARS patients. The molecular and(More)
BACKGROUND Since the 1960s, group A streptococcus (GAS) has accounted for less than 1% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. During the past 2 decades there has been a resurgence of invasive GAS infection, but no large study of GAS pneumonia has been performed. METHODS To determine the clinical and epidemiologic features of GAS pneumonia, we conducted(More)
Conflicting evidence exists regarding the optimal treatment for abscess complicating acute appendicitis. The objective of this study is to compare immediate appendectomy (IMM APP) versus expectant management (EXP MAN) including percutaneous drainage with or without interval appendectomy to treat periappendiceal abscess. One hundred four patients with acute(More)
It is not understood how immune inflammation influences the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One area of strong controversy is the role of interferon (IFN) responses in the natural history of SARS. The fact that the majority of SARS patients recover after relatively moderate illness suggests that the prevailing notion of deficient(More)
BACKGROUND Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) became a global epidemic in 2003. Comprehensive information on 1-year outcomes and health care utilization is lacking. Research conducted during the SARS outbreak may help inform research planning for future public health emergencies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 1-year outcomes in(More)
BACKGROUND Outbreaks of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the intensive care unit setting can be prolonged and difficult to control. This report describes the rapid control of an outbreak of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a 24-bed open-concept medical surgical intensive care unit with a baseline methicillin resistant(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate and precise estimates of the incubation distribution of novel, emerging infectious diseases are vital to inform public health policy and to parameterize mathematical models. METHODS We discuss and compare different methods of estimating the incubation distribution allowing for interval censoring of exposures, using data from the severe(More)
Retrospective review from 11 Canadian hospitals showed increasing incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from 0.12 per 1,000 inpatient days during 2005 to 0.47 per 1,000 inpatient days during 2009. By 2009, susceptibility rates of ESBL-positive E. coli/K. pneumoniae were as follows:(More)