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We summarise the approach to brane cosmology known as " mirage cosmology " and use it to determine the Friedmann equation on a 3-brane embedded in different bulk spacetimes all with one or more extra dimensions. Usually, when there is more than one extra dimension the junction conditions, central to the usual brane world scenarios, are difficult to apply.(More)
The spread of Huanglongbing through citrus groves is used as a case study for modeling an emerging epidemic in the presence of a control. Specifically, the spread of the disease is modeled as a susceptible-exposed-infectious-detected-removed epidemic, where the exposure and infectious times are not observed, detection times are censored, removal times are(More)
The extent of variation in DNA methylation patterns in healthy individuals is not yet well documented. Identification of inter-individual epigenetic variation is important for understanding phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. Using neutrophils from a cohort of healthy individuals, we generated base-resolution DNA methylation maps to document(More)
We present an efficient and flexible method for computing likelihoods for phenotypic traits on a phylogeny. The method does not resort to Monte Carlo computation but instead blends Felsenstein's discrete character pruning algorithm with methods for numerical quadrature. It is not limited to Gaussian models and adapts readily to model uncertainty in the(More)
The human placenta is hypomethylated compared to somatic tissues. However, the degree and specificity of placental hypomethylation across the genome is unclear. We assessed genome-wide methylation of the human placenta and compared it to that of the neutrophil, a representative homogeneous somatic cell. We observed global hypomethylation in placenta(More)
Aspergillus empyema occurred in a 69-year-old man six years after pneumonectomy. Exposed silk suture at the bronchial stump acted as a nidus and permitted extension of infection into the pleural space. Resolution was achieved by drainage and removal of the silk suture. The pathogenesis and management of Aspergillus empyema are reassessed in light of these(More)
Network rewiring as a method for producing a range of structures was first introduced in 1998 by Watts & Strogatz (Nature393, 440-442. (doi:10.1038/30918)). This approach allowed a transition from regular through small-world to a random network. The subsequent interest in scale-free networks motivated a number of methods for developing rewiring approaches(More)
Stochastic models can be difficult to test due to their complexity and randomness, yet their predictions are often used to make important decisions, so they need to be correct. We introduce a new search-based technique for testing implementations of stochastic models by maximising the differences between the implementation and a pseudo-oracle. Our technique(More)