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We examined the influence of two common polymorphic forms of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR): the Gly16 and Glu27 alleles, on acute and long-term beta(2)AR desensitization in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. In cells from 15 individuals, considered without respect to genotype, pretreatment with Isoproterenol (ISO) at 10(-7) M for 1 h or(More)
SUMMARY Many statistical operations benefit from differential calculus. Examples include optimization of estimation criteria and calculation of information matrices. For multi-parameter models differential calculus suited to vector argument functions is usually the most efficient means of performing the required calculations. We present a primer on vector(More)
Fully simplified expressions for Multivariate Normal updates in non-conjugate variational message passing approximate inference schemes are obtained. The simplicity of these expressions means that the updates can be achieved very efficiently. Since the Multivariate Normal family is the most common for approximating the joint posterior density function of a(More)
Multivariate kernel density estimation provides information about structure in data. Feature significance is a technique for deciding whether features – such as local extrema – are statistically significant. This paper proposes a framework for feature significance in d-dimensional data which combines kernel density derivative estimators and hypothesis tests(More)
Toxicologic studies have shown that soluble transition metals in residual oil fly ash (ROFA) can induce pulmonary injury. In this study, we investigated the association between the fractional concentration of expired nitric oxide (FENO) and exposure to metal constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter < or =2.5 microm (PM2.5)(More)
Highly structured generalised response models, such as generalised linear mixed models and generalised linear models for time series regression, have become an indispensable vehicle for data analysis and inference in many areas of application. However, their use in practice is hindered by high-dimensional intractable integrals. Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) is a(More)