Matthew P. Kronman

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Single-center evaluations of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) suggest that ASPs are effective in reducing and improving antibiotic prescribing, but studies are limited. Our objective was to compare antibiotic prescribing rates in a group of pediatric hospitals with formalized ASPs (ASP+) to a group of concurrent(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this work was to determine the excess charges, both overall and according to category, and lengths of stay attributable to adverse patient-care events during pediatric hospitalization. METHODS Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality pediatric-specific quality indicators were used to identify adverse events in 431524 discharges(More)
We examined the impact of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines that recommend ampicillin or amoxicillin for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Prescribing of ampicillin/amoxicillin increased following guideline publication, but remains low. Cephalosporin and macrolide prescribing(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine current rates of and trends in hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and CAP-associated complications among children. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective, cohort study by using the 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database. National estimates for CAP and CAP-associated local and systemic(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS This retrospective cohort study employed data from 464 UK ambulatory practices participating in The Health Improvement Network. All children with ≥ 2 years of follow-up from 1994 to 2009 were followed(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis investigating antibiotic exposure as a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS A literature search using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify studies providing data on the association between antibiotic use and newly diagnosed(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of pediatric hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has declined after the widespread use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The national incidence of outpatient visits for CAP, however, is not well established. Although no pediatric CAP treatment guidelines are available, current data support(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Pulmonary exacerbations lead to significant morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). National consensus guidelines exist, but few studies report current practice in the treatment and monitoring of pulmonary exacerbations. The goal of this study was to characterize consistency and variability in the inpatient(More)
OBJECTIVE Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are recommended to optimize antimicrobial use for hospitalized patients. Although mechanisms for the implementation of ASPs have been described, data-driven approaches to prioritize specific conditions and antimicrobials for intervention have not been established. We aimed to develop a strategy for(More)
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a safe and effective therapy for adults with recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis, but data regarding FMT in children are limited and focus on colonoscopic administration of FMT. We present 10 consecutive children who received FMT via nasogastric tube for treatment of recurrent C difficile infection. Median age(More)