Matthew P. Kronman

Learn More
OBJECTIVE To determine whether childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS This retrospective cohort study employed data from 464 UK ambulatory practices participating in The Health Improvement Network. All children with ≥ 2 years of follow-up from 1994 to 2009 were followed(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine current rates of and trends in hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and CAP-associated complications among children. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective, cohort study by using the 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database. National estimates for CAP and CAP-associated local and systemic(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of pediatric hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has declined after the widespread use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The national incidence of outpatient visits for CAP, however, is not well established. Although no pediatric CAP treatment guidelines are available, current data support(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Pulmonary exacerbations lead to significant morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). National consensus guidelines exist, but few studies report current practice in the treatment and monitoring of pulmonary exacerbations. The goal of this study was to characterize consistency and variability in the inpatient(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis investigating antibiotic exposure as a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS A literature search using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify studies providing data on the association between antibiotic use and newly diagnosed(More)
OBJECTIVE Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are recommended to optimize antimicrobial use for hospitalized patients. Although mechanisms for the implementation of ASPs have been described, data-driven approaches to prioritize specific conditions and antimicrobials for intervention have not been established. We aimed to develop a strategy for(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if systemic corticosteroid therapy is associated with improved outcomes for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS In this multicenter, retrospective cohort study we used data from 36 children's hospitals for children aged 1 to 18 years with CAP. Main outcome measures were length of stay (LOS),(More)
GOALS The aim of this study was to compare upper gastrointestinal (UGI) versus lower gastrointestinal (LGI) delivery routes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for refractory or recurrent/relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). BACKGROUND FMT has been proven to be a safe and highly effective therapeutic option for CDI. Delivery, however,(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Single-center evaluations of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) suggest that ASPs are effective in reducing and improving antibiotic prescribing, but studies are limited. Our objective was to compare antibiotic prescribing rates in a group of pediatric hospitals with formalized ASPs (ASP+) to a group of concurrent(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Antimicrobials are frequently prescribed for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI), although many are viral. We aimed to determine bacterial prevalence rates for 5 common childhood ARTI - acute otitis media (AOM), sinusitis, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, and pharyngitis- and to compare these rates to nationally(More)