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Lateralization of language to the left hemisphere is considered a key aspect of human brain organization. We used diffusion tensor MRI to perform in vivo virtual dissection of language pathways to assess the relationship between brain asymmetry and cognitive performance in the normal population. Our findings suggest interhemispheric differences in direct(More)
The purpose of this study is to create a white matter atlas of the human brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and to describe the constant and variable features of the major pathways. DTI was acquired from 40 healthy right-handed adults and reconstructed tracts mapped within a common reference space (MNI). Group effect maps of each tract(More)
Individuals born before 33 weeks' gestation are at risk of brain lesions, which have the potential to disrupt subsequent neurodevelopment. As a result they manifest an increased incidence of neuromotor signs and cognitive deficits, which can still be detected in adolescence. The cerebellum is known to be involved in both the co-ordination of movement and in(More)
Very-low-birthweight (VLBW) individuals are at high risk of brain injury in the perinatal period. We wished to determine how such early brain lesions affect brain structure in adulthood. Thirty-two VLBW adults (20 female, 12 male) and 18 term, normal birthweight sibling control individuals (nine female, nine male) underwent structural MRI at a mean age of(More)
RATIONALE Glutamatergic dysfunction at N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been proposed as a neurochemical model for schizophrenia. A key feature of this disorder is impairments in cognitive function. OBJECTIVE The present study sought to investigate the effects of ketamine, an NMDA antagonist, on the performance and neural correlates of verbal(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, ketamine, produces neurobehavioural symptoms that mimic aspects of schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex, a measure of sensorimotor gating, is decreased in chronically ill, medicated schizophrenic patients and in animals treated acutely with NMDA antagonists. We tested the hypothesis that(More)
Disruption of facial emotion perception occurs in neuropsychiatric disorders where the expression of emotion is dulled or blunted, for example depersonalization disorder and schizophrenia. It has been suggested that, in the clinical context of emotional blunting, there is a shift in the relative contribution of brain regions subserving cognitive and(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the growth of the corpus callosum between adolescence and early adulthood in individuals who were born before 33 weeks' gestation (very preterm [VPT]) and its relation to neuropsychological function. DESIGN A longitudinal cohort study of VPT individuals born between January 4, 1982, and December 29, 1984, and a term-born comparison(More)
Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT) birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we studied regional GM and(More)
BACKGROUND Morphometric endophenotypes which have been proposed for psychotic disorders include lateral ventricular enlargement and hippocampal volume reductions. Genetic epidemiological studies support an overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and COMT, BDNF, 5-HTT, NRG1 and DTNBP1 genes have been implicated in the aetiology of both these(More)