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Lateralization of language to the left hemisphere is considered a key aspect of human brain organization. We used diffusion tensor MRI to perform in vivo virtual dissection of language pathways to assess the relationship between brain asymmetry and cognitive performance in the normal population. Our findings suggest interhemispheric differences in direct(More)
The purpose of this study is to create a white matter atlas of the human brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and to describe the constant and variable features of the major pathways. DTI was acquired from 40 healthy right-handed adults and reconstructed tracts mapped within a common reference space (MNI). Group effect maps of each tract(More)
PURPOSE To determine the locations and extent of activation in areas of the brain at functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with olfactory stimulation and to determine whether accommodation or amplification of brain activation occurs with sequential olfactory stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Five adult men with normal senses of smell underwent(More)
RATIONALE Glutamatergic dysfunction at N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been proposed as a neurochemical model for schizophrenia. A key feature of this disorder is impairments in cognitive function. OBJECTIVE The present study sought to investigate the effects of ketamine, an NMDA antagonist, on the performance and neural correlates of verbal(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, ketamine, produces neurobehavioural symptoms that mimic aspects of schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex, a measure of sensorimotor gating, is decreased in chronically ill, medicated schizophrenic patients and in animals treated acutely with NMDA antagonists. We tested the hypothesis that(More)
Disruption of facial emotion perception occurs in neuropsychiatric disorders where the expression of emotion is dulled or blunted, for example depersonalization disorder and schizophrenia. It has been suggested that, in the clinical context of emotional blunting, there is a shift in the relative contribution of brain regions subserving cognitive and(More)
Individuals born before 33 weeks' gestation are at risk of brain lesions, which have the potential to disrupt subsequent neurodevelopment. As a result they manifest an increased incidence of neuromotor signs and cognitive deficits, which can still be detected in adolescence. The cerebellum is known to be involved in both the co-ordination of movement and in(More)
Very-low-birthweight (VLBW) individuals are at high risk of brain injury in the perinatal period. We wished to determine how such early brain lesions affect brain structure in adulthood. Thirty-two VLBW adults (20 female, 12 male) and 18 term, normal birthweight sibling control individuals (nine female, nine male) underwent structural MRI at a mean age of(More)
BACKGROUND Morphometric endophenotypes which have been proposed for psychotic disorders include lateral ventricular enlargement and hippocampal volume reductions. Genetic epidemiological studies support an overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and COMT, BDNF, 5-HTT, NRG1 and DTNBP1 genes have been implicated in the aetiology of both these(More)
Very preterm (VPT) birth is considered a risk factor not only for neurological impairment, but also for reduced function in several cognitive domains in childhood and later in life. Individuals who were born VPT are more likely to demonstrate learning and memory difficulties compared to term-born controls. These problems contribute to more VPT-born children(More)