Matthew Norman

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Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes 660 million clinical cases with over 2 million deaths each year. Acquired host immunity limits the clinical impact of malaria infection and provides protection against parasite replication. Experimental evidence indicates that cell-mediated immune responses also result in detrimental inflammation and contribute to severe(More)
Hematogenous dissemination is important for infection by many bacterial pathogens, but is poorly understood because of the inability to directly observe this process in living hosts at the single cell level. All disseminating pathogens must tether to the host endothelium despite significant shear forces caused by blood flow. However, the molecules that(More)
There has been a great deal of interest in adhesion molecules as targets for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically evaluate alpha(4) integrin and P-selectin as targets for therapy in murine models of multiple sclerosis-for the first time directly measuring the ability of their blockade to(More)
The mechanisms that mediate the recruitment of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in vivo are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the mechanisms by which exogenously produced CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 cells roll and adhere in Con A-inflamed liver microcirculation differ dramatically: Th1 cells use alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin and Th2 cells use the vascular adhesion protein(More)
Pathogenic spirochetes are bacteria that cause a number of emerging and re-emerging diseases worldwide, including syphilis, leptospirosis, relapsing fever, and Lyme borreliosis. They navigate efficiently through dense extracellular matrix and cross the blood-brain barrier by unknown mechanisms. Due to their slender morphology, spirochetes are difficult to(More)
CD4(+) T helper (Th1 and Th2) cell localization to a site of inflammation is important for the development, maintenance and regulation of an immune response. The factors that regulate Th1 and Th2 cell recruitment into tissue are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different cytokine microenvironments on the(More)
This paper describes two implementations of a potential field sharing multirobot system which we term as pessimistic and optimistic. Unlike other multirobot systems in which coordination is designed explicitly, it is an emergent property of our system. The robots perform no reasoning and are purely reactive in nature. We extend our previous work in(More)
Bradykinin is a vasoactive peptide that has been shown to increase the permeability of the cerebral microvasculature to blood-borne macromolecules. The two zinc metalloendopeptidases EC (EP 24.15) and EC (EP 24.16) degrade bradykinin in vitro and are highly expressed in the brain. However, the role that these enzymes play in bradykinin metabolism in vivo(More)
The design and implementation of adaptive systems as opposed to non-adaptive systems creates new demands on user interface designers. This paper discusses a few of these demands as encountered by the authors while utilising a formal notation for the design of an adaptive user interface to an electronic mail system. Recommendations for the extension of this(More)