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The process of autophagy, or bulk degradation of cellular proteins through an autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway, is important in normal growth control and may be defective in tumour cells. However, little is known about the genetic mediators of autophagy in mammalian cells or their role in tumour development. The mammalian gene encoding Beclin 1, a novel(More)
fEndosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR) is required for lysosome biogenesis. Currently, this pathway is poorly understood. Analyses in yeast identified a complex of proteins called "retromer" that is essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the carboxypeptidase Y receptor Vps10p. Retromer comprises five distinct proteins:(More)
We have recently characterized three yeast gene products (Vps35p, Vps29p, and Vps30p) as candidate components of the sorting machinery required for the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the vacuolar protein sorting receptor Vps10p (Seaman, M.N.J., E.G. Marcusson, J.-L. Cereghino, and S.D. Emr. 1997. J. Cell Biol. 137:79-92). By genetic and biochemical means we(More)
We have used RNA interference to knock down the AP-2 mu2 subunit and clathrin heavy chain to undetectable levels in HeLaM cells. Clathrin-coated pits associated with the plasma membrane were still present in the AP-2-depleted cells, but they were 12-fold less abundant than in control cells. No clathrin-coated pits or vesicles could be detected in the(More)
We have cloned and characterized members of a novel family of proteins, the GGAs. These proteins contain an NH(2)-terminal VHS domain, one or two coiled-coil domains, and a COOH-terminal domain homologous to the COOH-terminal "ear" domain of gamma-adaptin. However, unlike gamma-adaptin, the GGAs are not associated with clathrin-coated vesicles or with any(More)
Both dauer formation (a stage of developmental arrest) and adult life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans are negatively regulated by insulin-like signaling, but little is known about cellular pathways that mediate these processes. Autophagy, through the sequestration and delivery of cargo to the lysosomes, is the major route for degrading long-lived proteins(More)
Nature has always been efficient at saving energy and preventing waste. A good example of the thriftiness of nature is the recycling of receptors that mediate the transport of hydrolases to the lysosome in animal cells or to the vacuole in plants and fungi. By actively recycling these receptors, they are saved from degradation in the "garbage can" of the(More)
Mutations in the S. cerevisiae VPS29 and VPS30 genes lead to a selective protein sorting defect in which the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is missorted and secreted from the cell, while other soluble vacuolar hydrolases like proteinase A (PrA) are delivered to the vacuole. This phenotype is similar to that seen in cells with mutations in the(More)
A number of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar protein-sorting (vps) mutants exhibit an altered vacuolar morphology. Unlike wild-type cells that contain 1-3 large vacuolar structures, the class B vps5 and vps17 mutant cells contain 10-20 smaller vacuole-like compartments. To explore the role of these VPS gene products in vacuole biogenesis, we cloned and(More)
Adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate(More)