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While several researchers have applied case-based reasoning techniques to games, only Ponsen and Spronck (2004) have addressed the challenging problem of learning to win real-time games. Focusing on WARGUS, they report good results for a genetic algorithm that searches in plan space, and for a weighting algorithm (dynamic scripting) that biases subplan(More)
Modern complex games and simulations pose many challenges for an intelligent agent, including partial observability, continuous time and effects, hostile opponents, and exogenous events. We present ARTUE (Autonomous Response to Unexpected Events), a domain-independent autonomous agent that dynamically reasons about what goals to pursue in response to(More)
Dynamic changes in complex, real-time environments, such as modern video games, can violate an agent's expectations. We describe a system that responds competently to such violations by changing its own goals, using an algorithm based on a conceptual model for goal driven autonomy. We describe this model, clarify when such behavior is beneficial, and(More)
Planning in dynamic continuous environments requires reasoning about nonlinear continuous effects, which previous Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planners do not support. In this paper, we extend an existing HTN planner with a new state projection algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first HTN planner that can reason about nonlinear continuous effects.(More)
To operate autonomously in complex environments, an agent must monitor its environment and determine how to respond to new situations. To be considered intelligent, an agent should select actions in pursuit of its goals, and adapt accordingly when its goals need revision. However, most agents assume that their goals are given to them; they cannot recognize(More)
Although in theory opponent modeling can be useful in any adversarial domain, in practice it is both difficult to do accurately and to use effectively to improve game play. In this paper, we present an approach for online opponent modeling and illustrate how it can be used to improve offensive performance in the Rush 2008 football game. In football, team(More)
Stratagus is an open-source game engine that can be used for artificial intelligence (AI) research in the complex domain of real-time strategy games. It has already been successfully applied for AI studies by several researchers. The focus of this paper is to highlight Stratatgus' useful features for AI research rather than compare it with other available(More)
Although several researchers have integrated methods for reinforcement learning (RL) with case-based reasoning (CBR) to model continuous action spaces, existing integrations typically employ discrete approximations of these models. This limits the set of actions that can be modeled, and may lead to non-optimal solutions. We introduce the Continuous Action(More)
In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that plan recognition can significantly improve the performance of a case-based reinforcement learner in an adversarial action selection task. Our environment is a simplification of an Ameri-can football game. The performance task is to control the behavior of a quarterback in a pass play, where the goal is to(More)