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Kairomones produced by humans provide female anthropophilic mosquitoes with vital cues used in host-seeking for a blood meal. These chemicals are emanated primarily by the skin and provide the mosquitoes a means to orient themselves to humans at a relatively close range. Chemical studies of these emanations have provided new ideas for the formulation of(More)
The design of a novel multipass optical arrangement for use with infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) in the quadrupole ion trap is presented. This design circumvents previous problems of limited IR laser power, small IR absorption cross sections for many molecules, and the limited ion statistics of trapping and detection of ions for IRMPD in the(More)
Handled glass has the ability to collect and concentrate nonaqueous human skin emanations while minimizing the collection of aqueous perspiration. Compounds originating from the skin and collected on glass have previously been found to attract the Aedes aegypti species of mosquito. Therefore, glass beads were used as the medium to collect skin emanations(More)
RATIONALE Fentanyl is a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist that is widely used for the treatment of severe chronic pain. Discontinuation of fentanyl administration has been shown to induce a negative emotional state. OBJECTIVES The aim of the present studies was to investigate the effects of the partial mu-opioid receptor agonist buprenorphine on the(More)
Microemulsions of propofol with nanometer droplet diameter are alternatives to soybean macroemulsions for inducing anesthesia, and may have important advantages. We used a propofol (10 mg/mL) microemulsion (particle diameter 24.5 +/- 0.5 nm) and a commercial macroemulsion to induce anesthesia in dogs (n = 10) using a randomized, crossover design separated(More)
Adherence to microbicide gel use is critical to optimizing effectiveness in preventing human immunodeficiency virus transmission. The authors hypothesized that ester taggants added to vaginal gels would generate exhaled alcohol and ketone metabolites and provide a "breath test" for vaginal gel use. This 2-arm (vaginal and dermal), randomized,(More)
Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that result in diseases harmful to human, livestock, and wildlife hosts. Numerous measures can be used to reduce insect-borne disease risk to humans, and one approach is the use of topical repellents to prevent host-seeking arthropods from taking a blood meal. A current emphasis in the development of new repellents is that they(More)
We assessed the feasibility of a breath test to detect women's single or concurrent use of vaginal products by adding ester taggants to vaginal gel and condom lubricant. Healthy non-pregnant women were enrolled into a two-day cohort (N = 13) and a single-day cohort (N = 12) in San Francisco. Within each cohort, women were randomized (5:1) to tagged or(More)
A breath-based adherence system to document ingestion of oral medications (e.g., HAART) was investigated. Specifically, the food additive 2-butanol, which can be easily packaged with a drug, is converted via alcohol dehydrogenase to the volatile metabolite 2-butanone that rapidly appears in breath, indicating adherence. In healthy adults using a portable(More)
Water samples were collected on three dates at 24 sites influenced by effluent from Georgia-Pacific's Palatka Pulp and Paper Mill Operation, a bleached and unbleached kraft mill near Palatka, Florida, USA. The sampling sites were located within the mill retention ponds, Rice Creek, and the St. John's River. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass(More)