Matthew Long

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Accurate light measurements are important in the analysis of photosynthetic systems. Many commercial instruments are available to determine light; however, the comparison of light estimates between studies is difficult due to the differences in sensor types and their calibrations. The measurement of underwater irradiance is also complicated by the(More)
Based on noninvasive eddy correlation measurements at a marine and a freshwater site, this study documents the control that current flow and light have on sediment–water oxygen fluxes in permeable sediments. The marine sediment was exposed to tidal-driven current and light, and the oxygen flux varied from night to day between 229 and 78 mmol m22 d21. A(More)
Sediment-bound phosphorus (P) is a potential nutrient source for P-limited seagrasses inhabiting carbonate sediments. We explored the role of organic acid (OA) exudation by seagrasses in liberating mineral P from carbonate sediments. Organic acids can act to increase available P by dissolving carbonate sediment, competing with P for binding sites and(More)
Quantitative studies of coral reefs are challenged by the three-dimensional hard structure of reefs and the high spatial variability and temporal dynamics of their metabolism. We used the non-invasive eddy correlation technique to examine respiration and photosynthesis rates, through O2 fluxes, from reef crests and reef slopes in the Florida Keys, USA. We(More)
The metabolism of seagrass ecosystems was examined at 4 sites in south Florida, USA, using the eddy covariance technique under in situ conditions. Three sites were located across a phosphorus-driven productivity gradient to examine the combined effects of dynamic variables (irradiance, flow velocity) and state variables (sediment phosphorus and organic(More)
This study examined fluxes across the ice-water interface utilizing the eddy correlation technique. Temperature eddy correlation systems were used to determine rates of ice melting and freezing, and O2 eddy correlation systems were used to examine O2 exchange rates driven by biological and physical processes. The study was conducted below 0.7 m thick(More)
A low-cost self-contained underwater particle image velocimetry (UWPIV) system has been developed to measure small-scale turbulent flow structures in situ. The UWPIV employs a compact continuous-wave laser and an optical scanner to deliver a light sheet that illuminates naturally occurring particles. Particle images are taken by a CCD camera along with an(More)
Young animals are the foundation of future cohorts and populations, but are often particularly susceptible to environmental changes. This raises concerns that future conditions, influenced by anthropogenic changes such as ocean acidification and increasing oxygen minimum zones, will greatly affect ecosystems by impacting developing larvae. Understanding(More)
Climate change is expected to modify ecological responses in the ocean, with the potential for important effects on the ecosystem services provided to humankind. Here we address the question of how rapidly multiple drivers of marine ecosystem change develop in the future ocean. By analysing an ensemble of models we find that, within the next 15 years, the(More)
Recent advances in cell culture technology have created significant pressure on the downstream purification process, leading to a "downstream bottleneck" in the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins for the treatment of cancer, genetic disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Countercurrent tangential chromatography overcomes many of the limitations(More)