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Spider dragline silk is of practical interest because of its excellent mechanical properties. However, the structure of this material is still largely unknown. In this article, we report what we believe is a new model of the hierarchical structure of silk based on scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images. This hierarchical structure(More)
1. We review the mechanisms behind ecosystem functions, the processes that facilitate energy transfer along food webs, and the major processes that allow the cycling of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, and use case studies to show how these have already been, and will continue to be, altered by global warming. 2. Increased temperatures will affect the(More)
Recent studies have shown for birds that females sometimes choose mates on the basis of condition-dependent variation in ultraviolet (UV, less than 400 nm) ornamentation, but there have been few comparable studies on invertebrates. Yet many invertebrates have UV structural coloration. Here, we investigate Cosmophasis umbratica, a jumping spider (Araneae:(More)
Jumping spiders are known to possess ultraviolet (UV) receptors in the retinas of their large-principal eyes. The existence of UV visual cells, however, does not prove that jumping spiders can see into the UV part of spectrum (300-400 nm) or whether such an ability plays any role in salticid intra-specific interactions. In the study reported herein, we(More)
No animals are known to possess both ultraviolet (UV) reflectance and fluorescence that are sex-specific. We provide evidence for this separation in the jumping spider Cosmophasis umbratica, which has UV reflectance and UV-induced green fluorescence restricted to males and females, respectively. During courtship, many of the studied pairs failed to show(More)
The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed to provide a reliable, valid, and standard battery for clinical trials on cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia. In this study we tested the applicability of the MCCB to Singapore's English speakers. Healthy ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Indian English speakers (N = 171) of both genders were recruited(More)
Sex differences in the onset, epidemiology, clinical presentation and neuropathology of schizophrenia suggest that sexual dimorphism in brain development may be relevant to pathogenesis. Sex hormones, in particular testosterone, are considered to be crucial in brain development, but few investigations have examined the potential role of prenatal(More)
The jumping spider Cosmophasis umbratica from Singapore is strongly sexually dimorphic. The males, but not the females, reflect ultraviolet as well as green-orange light. The scales responsible for this are composed of a chitin-air-chitin sandwich in which the chitin layers are three-quarters of a wavelength thick and the air gap a quarter wavelength (where(More)
Animal colour signals used in intraspecies communications can generally be attributed to a composite effect of structural and pigmentary colours. Notably, the functional role of iridescent coloration that is 'purely' structural (i.e., absence of pigments) is poorly understood. Recent studies reveal that iridescent colorations can reliably indicate(More)