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In mammals there are two known groups of CDK-inhibitors of the cyclin D–CDK4/CDK6 kinases (Xiong et defined by a conserved amino-terminal domain that is Seattle, Washington 98104 sufficient for both stable binding to cyclin–CDK com-‡ Department of Pathology plexes and inhibition of CDK protein kinase activity. The Harvard Medical School Kip/Cip proteins can(More)
The widely prevailing view that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) are solely negative regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is challenged here by observations that normal up-regulation of cyclin D- CDK4 in mitogen-stimulated fibroblasts depends redundantly upon p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lack genes(More)
p27Kip is a candidate human tumour-suppressor protein, because it is able to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases and block cell proliferation. Abnormally low levels of the p27 protein are frequently found in human carcinomas, and these low levels correlate directly with both histological aggressiveness and patient mortality. However, it has not been possible(More)
BACKGROUND In many vertebrate cell lineages, precursor cells divide a limited number of times before they arrest and terminally differentiate into postmitotic cells. It is not known what causes them to stop dividing. We have been studying the 'stopping' mechanism in the proliferating precursor cells that give rise to oligodendrocytes, the cells that make(More)
Hearing loss is most often the result of hair-cell degeneration due to genetic abnormalities or ototoxic and traumatic insults. In the postembryonic and adult mammalian auditory sensory epithelium, the organ of Corti, no hair-cell regeneration has ever been observed. However, nonmammalian hair-cell epithelia are capable of regenerating sensory hair cells as(More)
Risk factors for grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and for chronic GVHD as defined by National Institutes of Health consensus criteria were evaluated and compared in 2941 recipients of first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation at our center. In multivariate analyses, the profiles of risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD were(More)
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein, p27(Kip1), is necessary for the timing of cell cycle withdrawal that precedes terminal differentiation in oligodendrocytes of the optic nerve. Although p27(Kip1) is widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, it is not known whether this protein has a similar role in neuronal differentiation. To(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to promote cell proliferation is opposed by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), proteins that bind tightly to cyclin-CDK complexes and block the phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. Mice with targeted CKI gene deletions have only subtle proliferative abnormalities, however, and cells(More)
Ring chromosomes offer an opportunity to measure sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies without the use of an agent to differentiate sister chromatids: SCE frequencies can be determined from the number of dicentric rings formed in cells from a cell line carrying a monocentric ring chromosome. Ash is a pseudotetraploid Chinese hamster ovary cell line in(More)
SUMMARY Targeted disruption of the murine p27(Kip1) gene caused a gene dose-dependent increase in animal size without other gross morphologic abnormalities. All tissues were enlarged and contained more cells, although endocrine abnormalities were not evident. Thymic hyperplasia was associated with increased T lymphocyte proliferation, and T cells showed(More)